Effects of Cheonggukjang and Doenjang on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

  • Lee, Chang-Hyun (Department of Anatomy, College of Oriental Medicine, Woosuk University) ;
  • Song, Geun-Seoup (Department of Food Engineering, Iksan National College) ;
  • Kim, Young-Soo (Faculty of Biotechnology, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University)
  • Published : 2008.06.30


The effects of cheonggukjang and doenjang on bone mineral density, trabecular area and cortical thickness of the tibia, and serum osteocalcin level in ovariectomized rats were investigated. After 4 weeks, bone mineral density, bone trabecular area, the cortical thickness index, and serum osteocalcin level were analyzed. The cheonggukjang and doenjang diet groups showed significant prevention of ovariectomized (OVX)-related body weight gain. Whole body bone mineral density of the OVX group was significantly lower than that of the sham group, whereas the cheonggulgang and doenjang diets resulted in complete restoration of bone mineral density. Trabecular area in the proximal diaphysis and cortical thickness in the distal diaphysis of the tibia were increased significantly in the cheonggukjang and doenjang diet fed groups. The cheonggukjang and doenjang diets significantly reduced serum osteocalcin level in the OVX rats. These results suggest that cheonggukjang and doenjang might have inhibitory effects on osteoporosis, by showing accelerated bone formation in OVX rats.


  1. Pie JE, Park JH, Park YH, Ryu YM, Kim KN, Suh SW, Becker KG, Cho-Chung YS, Kim MK. Effect of genistein on the expression of bone metabolism genes in ovariectomized mice using a cDNA microarray. J. Nutr. Biochem. 17: 157-164 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2005.06.002
  2. Goodman MT, Wilkens LR, Hankin JH, Lyu LC, Wu AH, Kolonel LN. Association of soy and fiber consumption with the risk of endometrial cancer. Am. J. Epidemiol. 146: 294-306 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009270
  3. Davison S, Davis SR. Hormone replacement theraphy: Current controversies. Clin. Endocrinol. 58: 249-261 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2265.2003.01774.x
  4. Barnes S. Phyto-oestrogens and osteoporosis; what is a safe dose? Brit. J. Nutr. 89: S101-108 (2003)
  5. Fanti P, Monier-Faugere MC, Geng Z, Schmidt J, Morris PE, Cohen D, Malluche HH. The phytoestrogen genistein reduces bone loss in short-term ovariectomized rats. Osteoporosis Int. 8: 274-281 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1007/s001980050065
  6. Ohta A, Uehara M, Sakai K, Takasaki M, Adlercreutz H, Morohashi T, Ishimi Y. A combination of dietary fructooligosaccharides and isoflavone conjugates increases femoral bone mineral density and equol production in ovariectomized mice. J. Nutr. 132: 2048-2054 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.7.2048
  7. Arjmandi BH, Alekel L, Hollis BW, Amin D, Stacewicz- Sapuntzakis M, Guo P, Kukreja SC. Dietary soybean protein prevents bone loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. J. Nutr. 126: 161-167 (1996) https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/126.1.161
  8. Arjmandi BH, Birnbaum R, Goyal NV, Getlinger MJ, Juma S, Alekel L, Hasler CM, Drum ML, Hollis BW, Kukreja SC. Bonesparing effect of soy protein in ovarian hormone-deficient rats is related to its isoflavone content. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68: 1364S-1368S (1998) https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/68.6.1364S
  9. Picherit C, Coxam V, Bennetau-Pelissero C, Kati-Coulibaly S, Davicco M-J, Lebecque P, Barlet J-P. Daidzein is more efficient than genistein in preventing ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. J. Nutr. 130: 1675-1681 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/130.7.1675
  10. Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, Stillman RJ, Shay NF, Erdman Jr JW. Soy protein and isoflavones: Their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68: 1375S-1379S (1998) https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/68.6.1375S
  11. Bingham SA, Atkinson C, Liggins J, Bluck L, Coward A. Phytooestrogens: Where are we now? Brit. J. Nutr. 79: 393-406 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19980068
  12. Kang MJ, Kim JI, Kwon TW. Effect of cheonggukjang on blood glucose and lipid profile in neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 12: 544-547 (2003)
  13. Kim W, Choi K, Kim Y, Park H, Choi J, Lee Y, Oh H, Kwon I, Lee S. Purification and characterization of fibrinolytic enzyme produced from Bacillus sp. strain CK-11-4 screened from cheonggukjang. Appl. Environ. Microb. 62: 2482-2488 (1996)
  14. Shin Zl, Yu R, Park SA, Chung DK, Ahn CW, Nam HS, Kim KS, Lee HJ. His-His-Leu, an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from Korean soybean paste, exerts antihypertensive activity in vivo. Agr. Food Chem. 49: 3004-3009 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf001135r
  15. Lee CH, Yang EI, Song GS, Chai OH, Kim YS. Cheonggukjang mucilage stimulates immunohistochemical activities of gastrointestinal tract in rats. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 14: 813-817 (2005)
  16. Lee CH, Yang EI, Song GS, Chai OH, Kim YS. Effects of cheonggukjang on immune response and gastrointestinal functions in rats. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 15: 19-23 (2006)
  17. Cu CB, Lee EY, Lee DS, Ham SS. Antimutagenic and anticancer effects of ethanol extract from Korean traditional doenjang added sea tangle. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 31: 322-328 (2002) https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.2.322
  18. Kim MH, Lee JH. Antioxidant materials in domestic meju and doenjang. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 23: 251-260 (1994)
  19. Legrand E, Chappard D, Pascaretti C, Duquenne M, Krebs S, Rohmer V, Basle MF, Audran M. Trabecular bone microarchitecture, bone mineral density, and vertebral fractures in male osteoporosis. J. Bone Miner. Res. 15: 13-19 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.1.13
  20. Wang H, Murphy PA. Isoflavone content in commercial soybean foods. J. Agr. Food Chem. 42: 1666-1673 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00044a016
  21. Choi YB, Sohn HS. Isoflavone content in Korean fermented and unfermented soybean foods. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 30: 745- 750 (1998)
  22. Kim MJ, Kog E, Surh J, Kim YK, Kwon H. Distribution of isoflavones and coumestrol in legumes and their products consumed in Korea. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 12: 278-284 (2003)
  23. Kim WC, Kwon SH, Rhee IK, Hur JM, Jeong HH, Choi SH, Lee KB, Kang YH, Song KS. Rapid high performance liquidchromatographic quantification of major isoflavones in soybeans and soybean pastes. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 15: 24-27 (2006)
  24. Picherit C, Chanteranne B, Bennetau-Pelissero C, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Barlet JP, Coxam V. Dose-dependent bone-sparing effects of dietary isoflavones in the ovariectomised rat. Brit. J. Nutr. 85: 307-316 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2000252
  25. Alekel DL, Germain AS, Peterson CT, Hanson KB, Stewart JW, Tada T. Isoflavone rich soy protein isolate attenuates bone loss in the lumbar spine of perimenopausal women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72: 844-852 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/72.3.844
  26. Ishimi Y, Miyaura C, Ohmura M, Onoe Y, Sato T, Uchiyama Y, Ito M, Wang X, Suda T, Ikegami S. Selective effects of genistein, a soybean isoflavone, on B-lymphopoiesis and bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. Endocrinology 140: 1893-1900 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1210/en.140.4.1893
  27. Li B, Yu S. Genistein prevents bone resorption diseases by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 26: 780-786 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.26.780
  28. Ishida H, Uesugi T, Hirai K, Toda T, Nukaya H, Yokotsuka K, Tsuji K. Preventive effects of the plant isoflavones, daidzein, and genistin on bone loss in ovariecmized rats fed a calcium-deficient diet. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 21: 62-66 (1988)
  29. Ke HZ, Paralkar VM, Grasser WA, Crawfors DT, Qi H, Simmons HA, Pirie CM, Chidsey-Frink KL, Owen TA, Smock SL, Chen HK, Jee WSS, Cameron KO, Rosati RL, Brown TA, Dasilva-Jardine P, Thompson DD. Effects of CP-336,156, a new, nonsteroidal estrogen agonist/antagonist, on bone, serum cholesterol, uterus, and body composition in rat models. Endocrinology 139: 2068-2076 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1210/en.139.4.2068
  30. Li XX, Hara I, Matsumiya T. Effects of osthole on postmenopausal osteoporosis using ovariectomized rats; comparison to the effects of estradiol. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 25: 738-742 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.25.738
  31. Xie F, Wu CF, Zhang Y, Yao XS, Cheung PY, Chan AS, Wong MS. Increase in bone mass and bone strength by Sambucus williamsii HANCE in ovariectomized rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28: 1879-1885 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.28.1879