A New Approach to Determine the Direction and Cause of Voltage Sag

  • Ahn, Seon-Ju (School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University) ;
  • Won, Dong-Jun (School of Electrical Engineering, INHA University) ;
  • Chung, Il-Yop (Center for Advanced Power Systems of Florida State University) ;
  • Moon, Seung-Il (School of Electrical Engineering, Seoul National University)
  • Published : 2008.09.30


Event source locating is very important to improving the power quality level. This paper presents a method to determine the relative location of the voltage sag source according to the cause. For this, the concept of the relative location of the source is defined first. Then, the main causes of voltage sag are classified and their characteristics are discussed. From these investigations, the rules to determine the relative location of event source are proposed for each type and the overall algorithm to identify the relative location and the kind of event source is presented. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the IEEE 13-bus test system and it is verified that the method can help to pinpoint the accurate location of the event source.


  1. L. Cristaldi, A. Ferrero, and S. Salicone, "A distributed system for electric power quality management," IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement, vol.51, no.4, pp.776-781, Aug. 2002
  2. M. Bollen, "Understanding Power Quality Problems: Voltage Sags and Interruptions," New York: IEEE Press, 2000
  3. M. Bollen, M. Hager, and C. Roxenius, "Effect of induction motors and other loads on voltage dips: theory and measurements," in Proceedings of IEEE Bologna PowerTech, 2003, pp.23-26
  4. K. Bhattacharya, M. Bollen, and J. E. Daalder, "Operation of restructured power systems," Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001
  5. K. S. Smith, L. Ran, and B. Leyman, "Analysis of transformer inrush transients in offshore electrical systems," IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol.146, no 1, 1999
  6. P. C. Y. Ling, and A. Basak, "Investigation of magnetizing inrush current in a single-phase transformer," IEEE Trans. Magnetics, vol.24, no.6, Nov. 1988
  7. J. C. Gomez, and M. M. Morcos, "Voltage sag and time in repetitive events," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol.17, no 4, pp.1037-1043, Oct. 2002
  8. M. Bollen, "The influence of motor reacceleration on voltage sags," IEEE Trans. Industry Applications, vol.31, no.4, pp.667-674, Jul. /Aug. 1995
  9. A. K. Pradhan and A. Routray, "Applying distance relay for voltage sag source detection," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol.20, no.1, Jan. 2005
  10. M. Bollen, "Voltage sags in three-phase systems," IEEE Power Engineering Review, vol.21, no. 9, pp 8-11, 15, Sept. 2001
  11. Distribution system analysis subcommittee report, Radial distribution test feeders, available at testfeeders.html
  12. D. J. Won and S. I. Moon, "Topological locating of power quality event source," Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, vol.1, no.2, pp.170-176, 2006
  13. H. S. Bronzeado, P. B. Brogan, and R. Yacamini, "Harmonic analysis of transient currents during sympathetic interaction," IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol.11, no.4, Nov. 1996
  14. I. Y. Chung, D. J. Won, S. J. Ahn, J. M. Kim, S. I. Moon, J. C. Seo, J. W. Choe, and G. S. Jang, "Development of power quality management system with power quality diagnosis functions," Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, vol.1, no.1, pp.28-34, 2006
  15. A. C. Parsons, W. Mack Grady, E. J. Powers, and J. C. Soward, "A direction finder for power quality disturbances based upon disturbance power and energy," IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol.15, no.3, pp.1081-1086, Jul. 2000
  16. C. Li, T. Tayjasanant, W. Xu, and X. Liu, "Method for voltage-sag-source detection by investigating slope of the system trajectory," IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol.150, no.3, 2003, pp.367-372
  17. N. Hamzah, A. Mohamed, and A. Hussain, "A new approach to locate the voltage sag source using real current component," Electric Power System Research, vol.72, no. 2, pp.113-123, Dec. 2004
  18. M. Bollen and P. M. E. Dirix, "Simple model for post-fault motor behavior for reliability/power quality assessment of industrial power systems," IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol.143, no.1, 1996, pp.56-60
  19. I. Y. Chung, S. I. Moon, "Development of a networkbased power quality diagnosis system," Electric Power System Research, vol.77, no.8, pp.1086-1094, Jun. 2007

Cited by

  1. Analysis of the origin of measured voltage sags in interconnected networks vol.154, 2018,
  2. Wind farm voltage dip measurements vol.17, pp.8, 2014,
  3. A New Method for Determining Voltage Sag Source Locations by using Multivariable Regression Coefficients vol.11, pp.15, 2011,
  4. Detection of voltage sag sources based on the angle and norm changes in the instantaneous current vector written in Clarke’s components vol.64, 2015,