Soil-to-Plant Transfer of $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co,\;^{85}Sr$ and $^{137}Cs$ Deposited during the Growing Season of Potato

감자의 재배기간 중 토양에 침적한 $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co,\;^{85}Sr,\;^{137}Cs$의 작물체로의 전이

  • Choi, Yong-Ho (Nuclear Environment Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) ;
  • Lim, Kwang-Muk (Nuclear Environment Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) ;
  • Jun, In (Nuclear Environment Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) ;
  • Keum, Dong-Kwon (Nuclear Environment Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute)
  • 최용호 (한국원자력연구원 원자력환경안전연구부) ;
  • 임광묵 (한국원자력연구원 원자력환경안전연구부) ;
  • 전인 (한국원자력연구원 원자력환경안전연구부) ;
  • 금동권 (한국원자력연구원 원자력환경안전연구부)
  • Published : 2008.09.30

Abstract

To measure the soil-to-plant transfer factors ($TF_a,\;m^2\;kg^{-1}$-fresh) of radionuclides deposited during the growing season of potato, a radioactive solution containing $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co,\;^{85}Sr$ and $^{137}Cs$ was applied to the soil surfaces in soil boxes 2 d before seeding and three different times during the plant growth. For the pre-seeding application (PSA), radionuclides were mixed with the topsoil (loamy sand and 5.2 in pH). The plant parts investigated were leaves, stems, tuber skin and tuber flesh. The $TF_a$ values of $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co,\;^{85}Sr$ and $^{137}Cs$ from the PSA were in the ranges of $1.9{\times}10^{-4}{\sim}1.5{\times}10^{-2}$, $1.8{\times}10^{-4}{\sim}7.5{\times}10^{-4}$, $4.0{\times}10^{-4}{\sim}1.6{\times}10^{-2}$, $1.5{\times}10^{-4}{\sim}3.9{\times}10^{-4}$ respectively, for different plant parts. The TFa values from the growing-time applications were on the whole a few times lower than those from the PSA. For $^{54}Mn,\;^{85}Sr$ and $^{137}Cs$, the $TF_a$ values from the early- or middle-growth-stage application were higher than those from the late-growth-stage application, whereas the opposite was true for $^{60}Co$. Leaves and tuber flesh had the highest and lowest $TF_a$ values, respectively, in most cases. The total uptake from soil by the four plant parts was in the range of $0.05{\sim}3.16%$. In the third year following the PSA, the $TF_a$ values of $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co$ and $^{137}Cs$ were $11{\sim}25%$, $21{\sim}25%$ and $38{\sim}67%$ of those in the first year, respectively, depending on the plant parts. The present results can be used for estimating the radiological impact of an acute radioactive deposition during the growing season of potato and for testing the validity of relevant food-chain models.

References

  1. Ng YC, Colsher CS, Thompson SE. Soil-to-plant concentration factors for radiological assessments. Report NUREG/CR-2975, UCID-19463. Lawrence Livermore Lab., USNRC. 1982
  2. International Atomic Energy Agency. Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments. IAEA. Vienna. 1994
  3. Choi YH, Lee CW, Kim SR, Lee JH, Jo JS. Effects of application time of radionuclides on their root uptake by Chinese cabbage and radish. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 1998;39:183-198 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(97)00052-0
  4. Choi YH, Lim KM, Park HG, Park DW, Kang HS, Lee HS. Transfer of 137Cs to rice plants from various paddy soils contaminated under flooded conditions at different growth stages. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 2005;80:45-58 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.08.013
  5. 농림부. 농림통계연보, 2007:98-99
  6. Choi YH, Park HG, Kim SB, Choi GS, Lee JH. Soil-toplant transfer factors and migration of radionuclides applied onto soil during growing season of cucumber. Kor. J. Environ. Agri., 1997;16:304-310
  7. Melikova MK, Baranova ZA. On the mechanism of Ca and Sr uptake (on the example of radiocalcium and radiostrontium) by potato tubers. In: Averg B, Hungate FP, eds. Radioecological Concentration Processes, Proc. Int. Sympo., Stockholm, 1966:409-413
  8. Srivastava SC, Absorption and translocation of phosphate through potato tubers. In: Radioisotopes in Soil-Plant Nutrition Studies, Proc. Int. Sympo., Bombay, IAEA, Vienna, 1962:393-396
  9. Steffens W, Führ F, Mittelstädt W. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides $^{90}Sr,\;^{137}Cs,\;^{60}Co\;and\;^54{Mn}$. In: Radiation Protection - A Systematic Approach to Safety, Proc. 5th Congress Int. Radia. Protec. Soc., Jerusalem, 1980:1135-1138
  10. Andersen AJ. Investigation on the plant uptake of fission products from contaminated soils 1, Influence of plant species and soil types on the uptake of radioactive strontiumand caesium. Riso Report 170, DAEC Resercah Establishment, Riso, 1967
  11. Abbazov MA, Dergunov ID, Mikulin RG. Effect of soil properties on the accumulation of $^{90}Sr$ and $^{137}Cs$ in crops. Soviet Soil Science, 1978;10:52-56
  12. Choi YH, Jo JS, Lee CW, Hong KH, Lee JH. Root uptake of $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co,\;^{85}Sr\;and\;^{137}Cs$ deposited at different times during the growing season of rice. J. Korean Asso. Radia. Prot., 1995;20:255-263
  13. D'Souza TJ, Mistry KB. Uptake and distribution of gamma-emitting activation products $^{59}Fe,\;^{58}Co,\;^{54}Mn\;and\;^{65}Zn$ in plants. Environ. Exp. Bot., 1979;19:193-200 https://doi.org/10.1016/0098-8472(79)90048-0
  14. Nisbet AF, Shaw S. Summary of a five-year lysimeter study on the time dependent transfer of $^{137}Cs,\;^{90}Sr,\;^{239,240}Pu\;and\;^{241}Am$ to crops from three contrasting soil types, 2. Distribution between different plant parts. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 1994;23:171-187 https://doi.org/10.1016/0265-931X(94)90059-0
  15. Evans EJ, Dekker AJ. Comparative $^{90}Sr$ content of agricultural crops grown in a contaminated soil. Can. J. Plant Science, 1962;42:252-258 https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps62-036
  16. Gerzabek MH, Strebl F, Temmel B. Plant uptake of radionuclides in lysimeter experiments. Environ. Pollu., 1998;99:93-103 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(97)00167-X
  17. Knatko VA, Ageets VU, Shmigelskaya IV, Ivashikevich II. Soil-to-potato transfer of $^{137}Cs$ in an area of Belarus: regression analysis of the transfer factor against $^{137}Cs$ deposition and soil characteristics. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 2000;48:171-181 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(99)00072-7
  18. Tsukada H, Nakamura Y. Transfer of $^{137}Cs$ and stable Cs from soil to potato in agricultural fields. Sci. Total Environ., 1999;228:111-120 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00009-1
  19. Cremers A, Elsen A, De Preter P, Maas A. Quantitative analysis of caesium retention in soils. Nature, 1988;335:247-249 https://doi.org/10.1038/335247a0
  20. Noordijk H, Van Bergeijk KE, Lembrechts J, Frissel MJ. Impact of ageing and weather conditions on soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium and radiostrontium. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 1992;15:277-286 https://doi.org/10.1016/0265-931X(92)90063-Y
  21. Squire HM, Middleton LJ. Behaviour of $^{137}Cs$ in soils and pastures: a long-term experiment. Radiat. Botany, 1966;6:413-425 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0033-7560(66)80074-1
  22. Choi YH, Kang HS, Jun I, Keum DK, Park HK, Choi GS, Lee HS, Lee CW. Transfer of $^{90}Sr$ to rice plants after its acute deposition onto flooded paddy soils. J. Environ. Radioactivity, 2007;93:157-169 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2006.12.008
  23. Squire HM. Long-term studies of $^{90}Sr$ in soils and pastures. Radiat. Botany, 1966;6:49-67 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0033-7560(66)80092-3