Measurement of Trans Fatty Acid formation and Degree of Rancidity in Fat and Oils According to Heating Conditions

가열조건에 따른 유지의 트랜스 지방산 생성과 산패도 측정에 관한 연구

  • Ahn, Myung-Soo (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women's University) ;
  • Suh, Mi-Sook (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women's University) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-Jung (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women's University)
  • 안명수 (성신여자대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 서미숙 (성신여자대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 김현정 (성신여자대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2008.08.31

Abstract

In this study, degree of rancidity and trans fatty acid formation were examined in fat and oils, including soybean oil (SB), canola oil (CA), corn germ oil (CO), olive oil (OL), palm oil (PO), and beef tallow (BT), during heating for 10-130 minutes at 160-200$^{\circ}C$. In order to determine the rancidity of the fat and oils, acid values (AV), iodine values (IV), viscosity, and color were measured. Changes in the amounts of fatty acids and the formation of trans fatty acids were measured using GC and HPLC. For all groups, AV increased, IV decreased, and coefficients of viscosity and color increased as the heating temperature and heating time increased, indicating there were positive correlations between the heating temperature and time and AV. In addition, all groups had similar amounts of trans fatty acids, with the exception of the beef tallow; however, its level only slightly increased with heating. The olive oil had the lowest trans fatty acid content and the lowest amount created by heating. The order of trans fatty acid amounts generated while heating was BT>PO>CO>CA>SB>OL. According to the study results, the deep frying temperature during cooking should be 160-180$^{\circ}C$ in order to reduce AV and the amount of trans fatty acids that are formed. In addition, it is better to remove beef tallow during cooking and avoid heating at high temperatures since it results in high levels of trans fatty acids. The correlation between the amount of trans fatty acids and AV was positive, while the correlation between the amount of trans fatty acids and IV was negative, indicating that AV and trans fatty acid levels increase while IV decreases as the deep frying temperature and time increase. From the results, it was found that reducing the deep frying temperature and time can lessen increases in AV and trans fatty acids, and decrease IV. Accordingly, to reduce AV and trans fatty acid formation, the ideal deep frying conditions would be to use olive oil or soybean oil rather than beef tallow or palm oil at a temperature of 160-180$^{\circ}C$.

Keywords

trans fatty acids;oxidation;acid value;iodine value;viscosity

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