DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Some Physiological Activities Observed from Ethanol Extracts of Germinated Specialty Rough Rice

  • Lee, Youn-Ri (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Hwang, In-Guk (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Woo, Koan-Sik (Crop Post-Harvest Technology Division, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Kee-Jong (Crop Post-Harvest Technology Division, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Jeong, Heon-Sang (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University)
  • Published : 2008.09.30

Abstract

This study analyzed the some of the physiological activities of 70% ethanol extracts of specialty rough rice ('Goami2', 'Keunnunbyeo', and 'Heugkwangbyeo' rough rice cultivars) before and after germination. The physiological activities of the extracts were analyzed for their inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase-like activity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, and nitrite scavenging effects. The most active rough rice cultivar was 'Heugkwangbyeo' and germinated 'Heugkwangbyeo' rough rice was more effective than ungerminated rough rice, having higher inhibition activity of linoleic acid peroxidation (1.2-fold), hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity (1.4-fold), superoxide dismutase-like activity (1.2-fold), and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (1.1-fold). The nitrite scavenging effect was increased after germination (2.1-fold) and decreased as pH increased. According to the results obtained in this study, 70% ethanol extracts from germinated 'Heugkwangbyeo' rough rice can be used for industrial applications such as the functional food materials.

Keywords

specialty rough rice;germination;physiological activity;ethanol extract

References

  1. Stadtman ER. 1996. Protein oxidation and aging. Science 257: 1220-1224 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1355616
  2. Milner A.1999. Functional foods and health promotion. J Nutr 129: 1395-1397 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/129.7.1395S
  3. Saunders RM. 1990. The properties of rice barn as a food stuff. Cereal Food World 35: 632-636
  4. Yang F, Basu TK, Ooraikul B. 2001. Studies on germination and antioxidant contents of wheat grain. J Food Sci Nutr 52: 319-330 https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480120057567
  5. Trugo LC, Donangelo CM, Trugo NF, Knudsen KB. 2000. Effect of heat treatment on nutritional quality of germinated legume seeds. J Agric Food Chem 48: 2082-2086 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9913920
  6. King RD, Perwastien P. 1987. Effects of germination on the proximate composition and nutritional quality of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) seeds. J Food Sci 52: 106-108 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1987.tb13982.x
  7. Siriwardhnana N, Lee KW, Kim SH, Ha JW, Jeon YJ. 2003. Antioxidants activity of Hizikia fusiforms on reactive oxygen species scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Food Sci Technol Int 9: 339-346 https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013203039014
  8. Marklun S, Marklun G. 1974. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the antioxidation of pyrogallol a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 47: 469-474 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1974.tb03714.x
  9. Noro T, Oda Y, Miyase T, Ueno A. 1993. Inhibitors of xanthine oxidase from the flower and buds of Daphne Genkwa. Chem Pharm Bull 31: 3982-3990
  10. Decker EA, Welch B. 1990. The role of ferritin as a lipid oxidation catalyst in muscle foods. J Agric Food Chem 38: 674-677 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00093a019
  11. Muramoto K, Yamauchi F, Nokihara K. 1997. Antioxidant activity of designed peptides based on the antioxidative peptide isolated from digests of a soybean protein. J Agric Food Chem 44: 2610-2623
  12. Jeon KI, Park E, Park HR, Jeon YJ, Cha SH, Lee SC. 2006. Antioxidant activity of far-infrared radiated rice hull extracts on reactive oxygen species scavenging and oxidantive DNA damage in human lymphocytes. J Med Food 9: 42-48 https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2006.9.42
  13. Fridovich I. 1995. Superoxide radical and superoxide dismutase. Annu Rev Biochem 101: 7-12
  14. Henryk Z, Juana F, Mariusz KP, Halina K, Concepcion V. 2006. The effect of germination process on the superoxide dismutase-like activity and thiamine, riboflavin and mineral contents of rapeseeds. Food Chem 99: 516-520 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.014
  15. Vanacker H, Foyer CH, Carver TL. 1998. Changes in apoplastic antioxidants induced by powdery mildew attack in oat genotypes with race non-specific resistance. Planta 208: 444-449 https://doi.org/10.1007/s004250050581
  16. Vanacker H, Carver TL, Foyer CH. 1994. Pathogen-induced changes in the antioxidant status of the apoplast in barley leaves. Plant Physiol 117: 1103-1109 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.117.3.1103
  17. Fields M, Lewsi CG, Lure MD. 1996. Allopurinol an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase reduces uric acid levels and modifies the signs associated with copper deficiency in rats fed fructose. Free Radic Bio Med 20: 595-600 https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(95)02056-X
  18. Cos P, Ying L, Calomme M, Hu JP, Cimang K, Poel BV, Pieters L. 1998. Structure activity relationship and classification of flavonoids as inhibitors of xanthine oxidase and superoxide scavenging. J Nat Prod 61: 71-76 https://doi.org/10.1021/np970237h
  19. Chio YJ, Chun SS, Chio C. 1993. Inhibitory effect of con densed tannins isolated from Korean green tea against xanthine oxidase. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 22: 418-422
  20. Lee YR, Woo KS, Kim KJ, Sou JR, Jeong HS. 2007. Antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from germinated specialty rough rice. Food Sci Biotechnol 16: 765-770
  21. Beckman JS, Koppenol WH. 1996. Nitric oxide, superoxide and peroxynitrite: the good, the bad, and ugly. Am J Physiol 217: 1421-1437
  22. Kaur C, Kapoor HC. 2001. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables the millennium's health. Int J Food Sci Technol 36: 703-725 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2621.2001.00513.x
  23. Muller HE. 1995. Detection of hydrogen peroxide proceeds by microorganism on ABTS-peroxidase medium. Zentalbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg 259: 151-158
  24. Gray JI, Dugan Jr. 1975. Inhibition of N-nitrosamine formation in model food systems. J Food Sci 40: 981-984 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1975.tb02248.x
  25. Nordberg J, Arner ESJ. 2003. Reactivitie oxygen species, antioxidants and the mammalian thioredoxin system. Free Radical Bio Med 31: 1287-1312 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(01)00724-9
  26. Kong LD, Cai Y, Huang WW, Cheng HK, Tan RX. 2000. Inhibitions of xanthine oxidase by some Chinese medicinial plants used to treat gout. J Ethnopharmacol 73: 199-207 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00305-6
  27. Selloum L, Reichl S, Mullwe M. 2001. Effects of flavonols on the generation of superoxide anion radicals by xanthine oxidase and stimulated neutrophils. Arch Biochem Biophy 395: 49-56 https://doi.org/10.1006/abbi.2001.2562
  28. Woo SM, Jeong YJ. 2006. Effect of germinated brown rice concentrates on free amino acid levels and antioxidant and nitrite scavenging activity in Kimchi. Food Sci Biotechnol 15: 351-356