Experimental tests on biaxially loaded concrete-encased composite columns

  • Tokgoz, Serkan (Civil Engineering Mersin University 33340 Mersin) ;
  • Dundar, Cengiz (Civil Engineering Cukurova University 01330 Adana)
  • Received : 2008.03.24
  • Accepted : 2008.09.30
  • Published : 2008.10.25


This paper reports an experimental investigation of the behaviour of concrete-encased composite columns subjected to short-term axial load and biaxial bending. In the study, six square and four L-shaped cross section of both short and slender composite column specimens were constructed and tested to examine the load-deflection behaviour and to obtain load carrying capacities. The main variables in the tests were considered as eccentricity of applied axial load, concrete compressive strength, cross section, and slenderness effect. A theoretical procedure considering the nonlinear behaviour of the materials is proposed for determination of the behaviour of eccentrically loaded short and slender composite columns. Two approaches are taken into account to describe the flexural rigidity (EI) used in the analysis of slender composite columns. Observed failure mode and experimental and theoretical load-deflection behaviour of the specimens are presented in the paper. The composite column specimens and also some composite columns available in the literature have been analysed and found to be in good agreement with the test results.


composite column;biaxial bending;slenderness effect;ultimate strength;flexural rigidity


  1. Rangan, B.V. (1990), "Strength of reinforced concrete slender columns", ACI Struct. J., 87(1), 32-38.
  2. Renaud, C., Aribert, J.M. and Zhao, B. (2003), "Advanced numerical method for the fire behaviour of composite columns with hollow steel section", Steel Compos. Struct., 3(2), 75-95.
  3. Roik, K. and Bergmann, R. (1990), "Design method for composite columns with unsymmetrical cross-sections", J. Constr. Steel Res., 15, 153-168.
  4. Saatcioglu, M. and Razvi, S.R. (1998), "High-strength concrete columns with square sections under concentric compression", J. Struct. Eng., 124(12), 1438-1447.
  5. Sfakianakis, M.G. (2002), "Biaxial bending with axial force of reinforced, composite and repaired concrete sections of arbitrary shape by fiber model and computer graphics", Adv. Eng. Softw., 33, 227-242.
  6. Taylor, R., Shakir-Khalil, H. and Yee, K.M. (1983),"Some tests on a new type of composite column", Proceedings of the institution of civil engineers, Part 2, 283-296.
  7. Tikka, T.K. and Mirza, S.A. (2005), "Equivalent uniform moment diagram factor for composite columns in major axis bending", J. Struct. Eng., 131(4), 569-581.
  8. Tikka, T.K. and Mirza, S.A. (2006-a), "Nonlinear equation for flexural stiffness of slender composite columns in major axis bending", J. Struct. Eng., 132(3), 387-399.
  9. Tikka, T.K. and Mirza, S.A. (2006-b), "Nonlinear EI equation for slender composite columns bending about the minor axis", J. Struct. Eng., 132(10), 1590-1602.
  10. Uy, B. (2001-a), "Local and post local buckling of fabricated steel and composite cross sections", J. Struct. Eng.,127(6), 666-677.
  11. Uy, B. (2001-b), "Axial compressive strength of short steel and composite columns fabricated with high strength steel plate", Steel Compos. Struct., 1(2), 171-185.
  12. Virdi, K.S. and Dowling, P.J. (1973), "The ultimate strength of composite columns in biaxial bending", Proceedings of the institution of civil engineers, Part 2, 251-272.
  13. Wang, Y.C. (1999), "Tests on slender composite columns". J. Const. Steel Res., 49, 25-41.
  14. Weng, C.C. and Yen, S.I. (2002), "Comparisons of concrete-encased composite column strength provisions of ACI code and AISC specifications", Eng. Struct., 24, 59-72.
  15. El-Tawil, S., Sanz-Picon, C.F. and Deierlein, G.G. (1995), "Evaluation of ACI 318 and AISC (LRFD) strength provisions for composite beam-columns", J. Constr. Steel Res., 34, 103-123.
  16. Eurocode 4, EC4, (1994): Design of composite steel and concrete structures, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.
  17. Furlong, R.W. (1967), "Strength of steel-encased concrete beam-columns", J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 93(10), 113-124.
  18. Furlong, R.W. (1979), "Concrete columns under biaxially eccentric thrust", ACI J. Proc., 76, 1093-1118.
  19. Furlong, R.W. (1983), "Comparison of AISC, SSLC, and ACI specifications for composite columns", J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 109(9), 1784-1803.
  20. Hognestad, E., Hanson, N. W. and McHenry, D. (1955), "Concrete stress distribution in ultimate stress design", ACI J., 27(4) 455-479.
  21. Johansson, M. and Gylltoft, K. (2001), "Structural behavior of slender circular steel-concrete composite columns under various means of load application", Steel Compos. Struct., 1(4), 393-410.
  22. Lachance, L. (1982), "Ultimate strength of biaxially loaded composite sections", J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 108, 2313-2329.
  23. Marquez de Souza, J.B. and Caldas, R.B. (2005), "Numerical analysis of composite steel-concrete columns of arbitrary cross section", J. Struct. Eng., 131(11), 1721-1730.
  24. Mirza, S.A. (1989), "Parametric study of composite column strength variability", J. Constr. Steel Res., 14, 121-137.
  25. Mirza, S.A. and Skrabek, B.W. (1991), "Reliability of short composite beam-column strength interaction", J. Struct. Eng., 117(8), 2320-2339.
  26. Mirza, S.A. and Skrabek, B.W. (1992), "Statistical analysis of slender composite beam-column strength", J. Struct. Eng., 118(5), 1312-1331.
  27. Mirza, S.A. and Tikka, T.K. (1999-a), "Flexural stiffness of composite columns subjected to major axis bending", ACI Struct. J., 96(1), 19-28.
  28. Mirza, S.A. and Tikka, T.K. (1999-b), "Flexural stiffness of composite columns subjected to bending about minor axis of structural steel section core", ACI Struct. J., 96(5), 748-756.
  29. Mirza, S.A. and Lacroix, E.A. (2004), "Comparative strength analyses of concrete-encased steel composite columns", J. Struct. Eng., 130(12), 1941-1953.
  30. Morino, S., Matsui, C. and Watanabe, H. (1984), "Strength of biaxially loaded SRC columns", Proceedings of the U.S./Japan joint seminar on composite and mixed construction. New York, NY, ASCE, 185-194.
  31. Munoz, P.R. (1994), "Behavior of biaxially loaded concrete-encased composite columns", Ph.D. Thesis, New Jersey Institute of Technology.
  32. Munoz, P.R. and Hsu, C.T. (1997-a), "Behavior of biaxially loaded concrete-encased composite columns", J. Struct. Eng., 123(9), 1163-1171.
  33. Munoz, P.R. and Hsu, C.T. (1997-b), "Biaxially loaded concrete-encased composite columns: design equation", J. Struct. Eng., 123(12), 1576-1585.
  34. ACI 318 (2002): Building code requirements for structural concrete, Detroit (MI), American Concrete Institute.
  35. AISC (1993): Load and resistance factor design specification for structural steel buildings, 2nd ed. Chicago IL, American Institute of Steel Construction.
  36. Al-Shahari, M.A., Hunaiti, Y.M. and Ghazaleh, B.A. (2003), "Behavior of lightweight aggregate concreteencased composite columns", Steel Compos. Struct., 3(2), 97-110.
  37. Bridge, R.Q. and Roderick, J.W. (1978), "Behavior of build-up composite columns", J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 104, 1141-1155.
  38. BS 5400 (1987): Design of composite bridges, Department of transport structures, London.
  39. BS 5950 (1990): Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction, British Standards Institution.
  40. Chen, S.F., Teng, J.G. and Chan, S.L. (2001), "Design of biaxially loaded short composite columns of arbitrary section", J. Struct. Eng., 127(6), 678-685.
  41. Chicoine, T., Tremblay, R. and Massicotte, B. (2002), "Finite element modelling and design of partially encased composite columns", Steel Compos. Struct., 2(3), 171-194.
  42. Dundar, C. and Sahin, B. (1993), "Arbitrarily shaped reinforced concrete members subjected to biaxial bending and axial load", Comput. Struct., 49, 643-662.
  43. Dundar, C., Tokgoz, S., Tanrikulu, A.K. and Baran, T. (2008), "Behaviour of reinforced and concrete-encased composite columns subjected to biaxial bending and axial load", Build. Environ., 43(6), 1109-1120.

Cited by

  1. Axial compression stability of a crisscross section column composed of concrete-filled square steel tubes vol.4, pp.10, 2010,
  2. Numerical Simulations of Fully Encased Composite Columns under Gravity Loads vol.860, 2016,
  3. Simplified nonlinear analysis to compute neutral axis depth in prestressed concrete rectangular beams vol.348, pp.7, 2011,
  4. Tests of eccentrically loaded L-shaped section steel fibre high strength reinforced concrete and composite columns vol.38, 2012,
  5. Studies on T-Shaped composite columns consist of multi separate concrete-filled square tubular steel sections under eccentric axial load vol.22, pp.2, 2016,
  6. Experimental and numerical investigation of the cyclic behaviour of an innovative prefabricated beam-to-column joint vol.150, 2017,
  7. Inelastic analysis for the post-collapse behavior of concrete encased steel composite columns under axial compression vol.19, pp.5, 2015,
  8. Compression-bending performance of L-shaped column composed of concrete filled square steel tubes under eccentric compression vol.17, pp.1, 2017,
  9. Statistical calibration of safety factors for flexural stiffness of composite columns vol.20, pp.1, 2016,
  10. Experimental study on steel tubular columns in-filled with plain and steel fiber reinforced concrete vol.48, pp.6, 2010,
  11. Experimental behaviour of steel fiber high strength reinforced concrete and composite columns vol.74, 2012,
  12. Cyclic behavior of prefabricated circular composite columns with low steel ratio vol.33, pp.9, 2011,
  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of the static performance of innovative prefabricated high-strength composite columns vol.159, 2018,
  14. Elastic-plastic formulation for concrete encased sections interaction diagram tracing vol.19, pp.4, 2015,