- Volume 11 Issue 6
DOI QR Code
Wind-induced tall building response: a time-domain approach
- Simiu, Emil (Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology) ;
- Gabbai, Rene D. (Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology) ;
- Fritz, William P. (Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology)
- Received : 2008.07.24
- Accepted : 2008.10.23
- Published : 2008.12.25
Estimates of wind-induced wind effects on tall buildings are based largely on 1980s technology. Such estimates can vary significantly depending upon the wind engineering laboratory producing them. We describe an efficient database-assisted design (DAD) procedure allowing the realistic estimation of wind-induced internal forces with any mean recurrence interval in any individual member. The procedure makes use of (a) time series of directional aerodynamic pressures recorded simultaneously at typically hundreds of ports on the building surface, (b) directional wind climatological data, (c) micrometeorological modeling of ratios between wind speeds in open exposure and mean wind speeds at the top of the building, (d) a physically and probabilistically realistic aerodynamic/climatological interfacing model, and (e) modern computational resources for calculating internal forces and demand-to-capacity ratios for each member being designed. The procedure is applicable to tall buildings not susceptible to aeroelastic effects, and with sufficiently large dimensions to allow placement of the requisite pressure measurement tubes. The paper then addresses the issue of accounting explicitly for uncertainties in the factors that determine wind effects. Unlike for routine structures, for which simplifications inherent in standard provisions are acceptable, for tall buildings these uncertainties need to be considered with care, since over-simplified reliability estimates could defeat the purpose of ad-hoc wind tunnel tests.
- ASCE (2005), Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. ASC/SEI 7-05 Standard. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia.
- Ellingwood, B.R., Galambos, T.V., MacGregor, J.G. and Cornell, C.A. (1980), Development of a probability based load criterion for American National Standard A58, NBS Special Publication 577, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC.
- NIST (2005), NCSTAR 1-2, Baseline Structural Performance and Aircraft Impact Damage Analysis of the World Trade Center Towers, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, pp. 41-58, 74-83, 299-300, 309-319, 329 ff (available in PDF format on www. wtc.nist.gov/reports_october05.htm).
- Fritz, W.P. (2003), "Period and damping selection for the design and analysis of building structures", Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, Johns Hopkins University.
- Grigoriu, M. (2006a), A Model for Directional Hurricane Wind Speeds, NIST Government Contractor Report 06-905 (available in PDF format on www.nist.gov/wind).
- Grigoriu, M. (2006b), Probabilistic Models for Directionless Wind Speeds in Hurricanes, NIST Government Contractor Report 06-906 (available in PDF format on www.nist.gov/wind).
- Holmes, J.D. and Pham, L. (1993), "Wind-induced dynamic response and the safety index", Proceedings of 6th International Conference on tructuural Safety and Reliability, August, pp. 1707-1709, A.A. Bakkema, Publishers.
- Isyumov, N., et al. (2003), "Predictions of wind loads and responses from simulated tropical storm passages", Proc., 11th International Conf. on Wind Eng., D.A. Smith and C.W. Letchford, eds., Lubbock, TX.
- Kasperski, M. (2003), "Specification of the design wind load based on wind-tunnel experiments", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 91, 527-541. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6105(02)00407-5
- Kasperski, M. and Geurts, C. (2005), "Reliability and code level", Wind Struct., 8, 295-307. https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2005.8.4.295
- Main, J.A. and Fritz, W.P. (2006), Database-assisted design for wind: concepts, software, and examples for rigid and flexible buildings, NIST Building Science Series 180, Gaithersburg, MD (available in PDF format on www.nist.gov/wind).
- Melbourne, W.H. (1980), "Comparison of measurements on the CAARC standard talll building model in simulated wind flows", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 6, 73-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6105(80)90023-9
- Simiu, E. (2007), "Errors in GEV analysis of wind epoch maxima from Weibull parents", by R.I. Harris, Discussion, Wind Struct.. 9 (3), 179-191.
- Simiu, E. and Filliben, J.J. (2005), "Wind tunnel testing and the sector by sector approach", J. Struct. Eng., 129(11), 1288-1294.
- Simiu, E. and Miyata, T. (2006), Design of Buildings and Bridges for Wind, J. Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey.
- Spence, S.M.J., Gabbai, R.D. and Simiu, E. (2008), "Time-domain wind-tunnel based methodology for tall building analysis and optimal design", Proc., 4th International Conference on Advances in Wind and Structures, C.-K. Choi (ed.), Jeju, Korea.
- Standards Australia (1989), Minimum design loads on structures, Part 2: Wind Loads, Standards Australia, North Sydney, N.S.W., Australia.
- Standards Australia (2002), Minimum design loads on structures, Part 2: Wind Actions, Australian/New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS 1170.2:2002. Standards Australia, North Sydney, N.S.W., Australia.
- Wardlaw, R.L. and Moss, F. (1971), "A standard tall building model for the comparisons of simulated natural winds in wind tunnels", Proceedings, 3rd International Conference on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, pp. 1245-1250, Tokyo, Japan.
- Venanzi, I. (2005), "Analysis of the torsional response of wind-excited buildings", Ph.D. Dissertation, Universita degli Studi di Perugia.
- A cyberbased Data-Enabled Design framework for high-rise buildings driven by synchronously measured surface pressures vol.77, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advengsoft.2014.07.001
- Pressure integration technique for predicting wind-induced response in high-rise buildings vol.52, pp.4, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2013.08.006
- Data-driven performance-based topology optimization of uncertain wind-excited tall buildings vol.54, pp.6, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-016-1474-6
- A probabilistic approach for the full response estimation of tall buildings with 3D modes using the HFFB vol.44, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2013.06.002
- High-Rise Reinforced Concrete Structures: Database-Assisted Design for Wind vol.137, pp.11, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000394
- Proposed approach for determination of tributary areas for scattered pressure taps vol.16, pp.6, 2013, https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2013.16.6.617
- A Cyber-Based Data-Enabled Virtual Organization for Wind Load Effects on Civil Infrastructures: VORTEX-Winds vol.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3389/fbuil.2017.00048
- Advances in the design of high-rise structures by the wind tunnel procedure: Conceptual framework vol.21, pp.5, 2015, https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2015.21.5.489
- Dynamics and Control of High-Rise Buildings under Multidirectional Wind Loads vol.2011, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/549621
- Second-Order Effects on Wind-Induced Structural Behavior of High-Rise Steel Buildings vol.144, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0001943
- Synthesis of wind tunnel and climatological data for estimating design wind effects: A copula based approach vol.57, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2015.07.004
- Influence of Turbulence, Orientation, and Site Configuration on the Response of Buildings to Extreme Wind vol.2014, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/178465
- Comparison of Reduced-Order Models to Analyze the Dynamics of a Tall Building under the Effects of Along-Wind Loading Variability vol.2, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1061/AJRUA6.0000833
- Evaluation of Mean Recurrence Intervals of Wind Effects for Tall Building Design vol.140, pp.1, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000818
- Data-Enabled Design and Optimization (DEDOpt): Tall steel building frameworks vol.129, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruc.2013.04.023