A Study on Performance of Protective Gloves to Isocyanate Toxicity

이소시안화물 독성에 대한 보호장갑의 성능 연구

  • Published : 2008.12.31

Abstract

As the concerns of dermal exposure of spray painters to isocyanates in the automobile industry, glove performance was examined like permeation rate and breakthrough time including fatigue test. Methylene chloride was used as the solvent for derivatization of the isocyanates with a 97.5% recovery. Ghost wipe pads were used to wipe the surface of the glove material after chemical penetration through the glove material placed under a disposable test cell. Several solvents were tested, such as thinner(xylene, toluene) and cleaning agent(acetone) by using a standard permeation test cell(AS/NZS standard 2161. part 10.3). Solvents accelerate chemical permeation through the gloves more quickly than pure HDI hardener products. The longest breakthrough times were from Nitrosolve gloves, not detected in 8 hours, compared with others like Latex, Neoprene, TNT and Dermo Plus. Therefore Nitrosolve gloves could be recommended as personal protective equipment in crash repair shops. In addition, revised exposure limit of korean regulation should be suggested for employee to minimize the risk of health symptoms.

Keywords

isocyanate;glove performance;permeation rate;breakthrough time;crash repair shop

References

  1. F.V. Bergerova, T. Pierce, P.O. Droz, "Dermal Absorption Potential of Industrial Chemicals, Criteria for Skin Notation", American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 17, pp. 617-635, 1990 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.4700170507
  2. J. De Cock, D. Heederick, H. Kromhout, J.S.M. Boleij, "Strategy for Assigning a 'skin notation', A Comment", American Occupational Hygiene, Vol. 40, pp. 611-614, 1996 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-4878(95)00094-1
  3. Lee, "Dermal and Ocular Exposure During The Spray Application of Selected Industrial Chemicals", PhD Thesis, Descipline of Public Health, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, 2005
  4. M. Cushmac, D. Difiore, C. Hetfield, "New Chemical Environmental Technology Initiative-Automotive Refinishing Industry Isocyanate Profile", U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA), SAIC Project No. 01-1029-07-8088, 1997
  5. Y.C. Liu, J. Sparer, S. R. Woskie, M. R. Cullen, J. S. Chung, C. T. Holm, C. A. Redlich, "Qualitative Assessment of Isocyanate Skin Exposure in Auto Body Shops: A Pilot Study", American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 37, pp. 265-274, 2000 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(200003)37:3<265::AID-AJIM4>3.0.CO;2-O
  6. OSHA, "Aliphatic Diisocyanate on Surfaces by Colorimetric Swype Indicators", U.S Department of Labour, Occupational Safety & Health Administration, 2002
  7. Ansell, "Ansell Protective Products Chemical Registance Guide - Permeation & Degradation Data", U.S, 1998
  8. 노동부 고시 제2008-26호, 화학물질 및 물리적인자의 노출기준, 2008
  9. W. A. Heitbrink, T. C. Cooper, M. A. Edmonds, C. J. Bryant, W. E. Ruch, "In-DEPTH Survey Report- Control Technology for Autobody Repair and Painting Shops, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)", U.S Department of Labor, Report No. ECTB 179-14a, 1993
  10. C. McCammon, "NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation, Occupational Safety & Health Administration(OSHA)", U.S Department of Labor, Report No. HETA 95-0405-2600, 1996
  11. B. McArthur, "Dermal measurement and wipe sampling methods: A review", Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg., Vol. 7, No. 9, pp. 599-606, 1992 https://doi.org/10.1080/1047322X.1992.10388051
  12. S.A. Ness, "Surface and Dermal Monitoring for Toxic Exposures", Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkISBN 0-442-01465-1, 1994
  13. ACGIH, "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices", 7th Edition, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH, 2001
  14. Y.C. Liu, M. Stowe, F. Walsh, J. Sparer, M.R. Cullen, C.T. Holm, C.A. Redich, "Surface contamination and skin exposure to aliphatic isocyanate skin exposure in auto body shops; A quantative assessment", Am. Ind. Hyg Conf. Exp., New Orleans, Louisiana, June 2-7, 2001
  15. HSE, "Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances (MDHS) 25/3 Organic isocyanates in air", Health & Safety Executive, January, 1999
  16. 이수길, 이내우, 디노 피사니엘로, "가구산업에 사용되는 이소시안화물의 폭로에 대한 평가", 한국안전학회지, 제21권, 제2호, pp. 138-142, 2006
  17. R.A. Fenske, "Dermal exposure assessment techniques", Ann. Occu. Hyg., Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 687-706, 1993 https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/37.6.687
  18. Australian/New Zealand Standard TM, "Occupational Protective Gloves Part 10.3: Protective Gloves Against Chemicals and Micro-Organisms-Determination of Resitance to Permeation by Chemicals", 2002
  19. S. Semple, "Dermal exposure to chemicals in the workplace: Just how important is skin absorption?", Occup. Environ. Med., Vol. 61, pp. 376-382, 2004 https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2003.010645
  20. N. J. Rattray, P.A. Botham, P.M. Hext, D.R. Woodcock, I. Fielding, R.J. Dearman, I. Kimbler, "Induction of respiratory hypersensitivity to diphenolmethane-4,4-diisocyanate(MDI) in guinea pigs", Influence of route of exposure, Toxicol., Vol. 88, pp. 15-30, 1994
  21. R.T. Gun, A. Langley, S.J. Dundas, K. McCall, "The Human Cost of Work-Occupational Respiratory Disease", 2ndEdition, ISBN 0 7308 4858 2, SA Health Commission, Adelaide, 1996
  22. 이수길, 이내우, "분사페인트에 의한 이소시안화물의 노출이 건강에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구", 한국안전학회지, 제23권, 제3호, pp. 79-86, 2008
  23. D. Pisaniello, L. Muriale, "The Use of Isocyanate Paints in Auto Refinishing: A Survey of Isocyanate Exposure and Related Work Practices in South Australia", Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 563-572, 1989a https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/33.4.563
  24. T.C. Cooper, W.A. Heitbrink, M.A. Edmonds, J. Bryant, W. E. Ruch, "In-Depth Survey Report: Control Technology for Autobody Repair and Painting Shops at Jeff Wyler Autobody Shop", Batavia, Ohio, June 16-19, and July 21, 1992. U.S.DHHS, PHS, CDC, NIOSH, NTIS Pub. No. PB-93-216182, 1993
  25. ATSDR, "Toxicological Profile for. Hexamethylene Diisocyanate(HDI)", CAS# 822-06-0. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, August, 1998
  26. OSHA HCS, "Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations 1910. 1200", Occupational Safety and Health Administration Hazard Communication Standard (OSHA HCS), Updated July 3, 1998