Cross-sectional study on the prevalence of anemia among rural elderly in Asan

  • Kim, Hee-Seon ;
  • Lee, Byung-Kook
  • Published : 2008.03.31

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and clinical characteristics of anemia and to define the risk factors for anemia in older Koreans in Asan. From January to February 2002, five hundred sixty two community-dwelling older adults aged over 60 years were selected from a cross sectional study. All subjects underwent laboratory tests, which included a complete blood cell count, reticulocyte, liver and renal functional tests, lipid profiles and iron status tests. The median age was 68.6 years (range, 60-92 years). The mean levels of hemoglobin were $14.4{\pm}1.3\;g/dL$ in men and $12.9{\pm}1.0\;g/dL$ in women, and the overall prevalence of anemia was 12.5% in all subjects, 10.8% in men and 13.6% in women. The prevalence of anemia was the lowest among age group of 60-69 (10.0%) followed by 70-79 (15.5%), and the highest among age over 80 (20.7%), but the difference was significant only for men. The age difference was more distinct in men than in women (p<0.05). The mean hemoglobin level was significantly lower in the subjects aged over 80 y than those in the 60-69 y group (p<0.05). According to a logistic regression analysis, lower albumin and higher creatinine levels were identified as independent risk factors of anemia among older adults in Asan. In conclusion, the overall prevalence of anemia in our study group was 12.5% and the highest (20.7%) among those aged over 80 y.

Keywords

Anemia;elderly;rural Korea;albumin;creatinine

References

  1. Ma JZ, Ebben J, Xia H & Collins AJ (1999). Hematocrit levels and associated mortality in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 10:610-619
  2. Zauber NP & Zauber AG (1987). Hematologic data of healthy very old people. J Am Med Assoc 257:2181-2184 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.257.16.2181
  3. Celestin-Roux C, Hale WE, Perkins LL & Stewart RB (1987). Anemia: evaluation of age, sex, disease and medication in the elderly. Journal of Geriatric Drug Therapy 1:63-86 https://doi.org/10.1300/J089v01n04_04
  4. Kikuchi M, Inagaki T & Shinagawa N (2001). Five-year survival of older people with anemia: variation with hemoglobin concentration. J Am Geriatr Soc 149:1226-1228
  5. Ania BJ, Suman VJ, Fairbanks VF, Rademacher DM & Melton LJ III (1997). Incidence of anemia in older people: an epidemiology study in a well-defined population. J Am Geriatr Soc 45:825-831 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1997.tb01509.x
  6. Hake WE, Stewart RB & Marks RG (1983). Hematology and biochemical values in an ambulatory elderly population. Age Ageing 12:275-284 https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/12.4.275
  7. Baik HW & Russell RM (1999). Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly. Annu Rev Nutr 19:357-377 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.19.1.357
  8. Izaks GJ, Westendorp RG & Knook DL (1999). The definition of anemia in older persons. J Am Med Assoc 281:1714-1717 https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.281.18.1714
  9. Balducci L (2003). Epidemiology of anemia in the elderly: information on diagnostic evaluation. J Am Geriatr Soc 51:2-9 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.51.3s.4.x
  10. Carmel R (2001). Anemia and aging: an overview of clinical, diagnostic and biological issues. Blood Rev 15:9-18 https://doi.org/10.1054/blre.2001.0146
  11. DeMaeyer E & Adiels-Yagman M (1985). The prevalence of anemia in the world. World Health Stat Q 38:392-316
  12. Moreno F, Sanz-Guajardo D, Lopez-Gomez JM, Jofre R & Valderrabano F (2000). Increasing hematocrit has a beneficial effect on quality of life and is safe in selected hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 11:335-342
  13. Smith DL (2000). Anemia in elderly. Am Fam Physician 62:1565- 1572
  14. Choi CW, Lee J Park KH, Yoon SY, Choi IK, Oh SC, Seo JH, Kim BS, Shin SW, Kim YH & Kim JS (2004). Prevalence and characteristics of anemia in the elderly: Cross-sectional study of three urban Korean population samples. Am J Hematol 77:26-30 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.20140
  15. Nissenson AR. Goodnough LT & Dubois RW (2003). Anemia, not just an innocent bystander? Arch Intern Med 162:1400-1404
  16. Timiras MS & Brownstein H (1987). Prevalence of anemia and correlation of hemoglobin with age in a geriatric screening clinic population. J Am Geriatr Soc 35:639-643 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1987.tb04340.x
  17. Stander PE (1989). Anemia in the elderly. Postgrad Med 85:85-96
  18. Kim JS, Kim MK & Kim HS (2007). Regional comparison of dietary intakes and health related behaviors among residents in Asan. Nutrition Research and Practice 2:143-149 https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2007.1.2.143
  19. Lipschitz DA, Mitchell CO & Thompson C (1981). The anemia of senescence. Am J Hematol 11:47-54 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.2830110106
  20. Salive ME, Cornoni-Huntley J, Guralink JM, Phillips CL, Wallace RB, Ostfeld AM & Cohen HJ (1992). Anemia and hemoglobin levels in older persons: relationship with age, gender, and health status. J Am Geriatr Soc 40:489-496 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1992.tb02017.x
  21. Blumberg WE, Eisinger J, Lamola AA & Zuckerman DM (1977). Zinc protoporphyrin level in blood determined by a portable hematofluorometer: a screening device for lead poisoning. J Lab Clin Med 89:712-723
  22. Ania BJ, Suman VJ, Fairbanks VF & Melton LJ III (1994). Prevalence of anemia in medical practice: community versus referral patients. Mayo Clin Proc 69:730-735