DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Temperature on Yield and Fruit Characteristics of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

이산화탄소 및 온도 상승이 토마토 수량 및 과실특성에 미치는 영향

  • Published : 2008.12.31

Abstract

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the level of $CO_2$ (370 and $650{\mu}mol\;mol^{-1}$) and temperature (ambient and ambient+$5^{\circ}C$) on tomato growth and fruit characteristics as affected by the application rate of N-fertilizer (68 and $204\;N\;kg\;ha^{-1}$), for the purpose of evaluating the influence of elevated $CO_2$ and temperature on tomato crop. The elevated atmospheric $CO_2$ and temperature increased the plant height and stem diameter for tomato crop, while the differences among the nitrogen(N) application rates were not significantly different. Under the elevated $CO_2$, temperature, and a higher N application rate, the biomass of aerial part increased. The fruit yield showed the same result as the biomass except for the elevated temperature. The elevated temperature made the size of fruit move toward the small, but the elevated $CO_2$ and the application of N-fertilizer were vice versa. The sugar content and pH of fruit juice were affected by nitrogen application rate, but not by the elevated $CO_2$ and temperature. These results showed that both the elevated $CO_2$ and temperature stimulated the vegetative growth of aerial parts for tomato, but each effects on the yield of fruit showed an opposite result between the elevated temperature and $CO_2$. In conclusion, the elevated $CO_2$ increased tomato yield and the ratio of large size of fruit, but the elevated temperature did not. Therefore, to secure the productivity of tomato as nowadays in future environment, it will need to develop new breeder as high temperature-tolerable tomato species or new type of cropping systems.

Keywords

Tomato yield;Fruit size;Leaf starch;Photosynthesis

References

  1. IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2001) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) - Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, IPCC
  2. Idso, S. B. (1980) The climatological significance of a doubling of Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, Science. 207, 1462-1463 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.207.4438.1462
  3. Idso, S. B. (1982) A surface air temperature response function for Earth's atmospheric, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 22, 227-232 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00118255
  4. Paul, M. J. and Foyer, C. H. (2001) Sink regulation of photosynthesis, J. of Exp. Bot. 360, 1383-1400
  5. Lee, Y. B. and Lee, B. Y. (1994) Effect of long term $CO_2$ enrichment on leaf temperature, diffusion resistance, and photosynthetic rate in tomato plants, J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 35, 421-428
  6. Lee, Y. B. and Lee, B. Y. (1994) Effect of long term $CO_2$ enrichment on chlorophyll, starch, soluble protein content, and RUBPCase activity in tomato plants, J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 35, 309-317
  7. Warren-Wilson, J. (1966) An analysis of plant growth and its control in arctic environments, Annals of Bot. 30, 383-402
  8. Wildman, S. G. (1967) The organization of granacontaining chloroplasts in relation to location of some enzymatic systems concerned with photosynthesis, protein synthesis and ribonucleic acid synthesis, pp. 295-319. In: Goodwin, T. W.(ed.). Biochemistry of chloroplasts, Vol. 2. Proceedings NATO Advanced Study Institute (Aberystwyth), New York Academic Press
  9. Luft, J. H. (1973) Compounding of Luft's epon embedding medium for use in electron microscopy with reference to anhydride: epoxide ratio adjustment, Mikroskopie. 29, 337-342
  10. Locascio, S. J., Olson, S. M. and Rhoads, F. M. (1989) Water quantity and time of N and K application for trickle-irrigated tomatoes, J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 114, 265-268
  11. Kimball, B. A., Kobayashi, K. and Bindi, M. (2002) Responses of agricultural crops to free-air $CO_2$ enrichment, Adv. in Agron. 77, 293-367 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(02)77017-X
  12. Ho, L. C. (1977) Effect of $CO_2$ enrichment on the rates of photosynthesis and translocation of tomato leaves. Ann. Applied Biol. 87, 191-200 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1977.tb01875.x
  13. RDA(Rural Development Administration) (1999) Recommended standard fertilization for crops, RDA, Korea
  14. RDA(Rural Development Administration) (1988) Method of Soil Chemical Analysis, RDA, Korea
  15. Hull, H. M. (1952) Carbohydrate translocation in tomato and sugar beet with particular reference to temperature effect, Am. J. of Botany. 39, 661-669 https://doi.org/10.2307/2438373
  16. Holly, W. D. (1970) $CO_2$ enrichment for flower production, Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 13, 257-258 https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.38583
  17. Hellmuth, E. O. (1971) The effect of varying air-$CO_2$ level, leaf temperature, and illuminance on the $CO_2$ exchange of the dwarf pea, Pisium sativa L. var. Meteor, Photosythetica. 5, 190-194
  18. Fock, H., Canvin, D. T. and Grant, B. R. (1971) Effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on photosynthetic $O_2$ evolution and $CO_2$ uptake in sunflower and Chlorella, Photosythetica. 5, 389-394
  19. Iwahori, S. (1966) High temperature injuries in tomato V. Fertilization and development of embryo with special reference to the abnormalities caused by high temperature, J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 33, 379-388
  20. Stevens, M. A. and Rudich, J. (1978) Genetic potential for overcoming physiological limitations on adaptability, yield, and quality in the tomato, HortSci. 673-678
  21. Kinet, J. M. and Peet, M. M. (1997) Tomato, pp. 207-258. In: Wien, H. C. (Ed.), The Physiology of Vegetable Crops. Commonwealth Agricultural Breau (CAB) International, Wallinford, UK
  22. Lohar, D. P. and Peat, W. E. (1998) Floral characteristics of heat-tolerance and heat-sensitive tomato cultivars at high temperature, Scientia Horticulturae. 73, 53-60 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(97)00056-3
  23. Kretchman, D. W. and Howlett, F. S. (1970) $CO_2$ enrichment for vegetable production, Trans. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng. 13, 252-256 https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.38582
  24. Adams, S. R., Cokshull, K. E. and Cave, C. R. J. (2001) Effect of temperature on the growth and development of tomato fruits, Annals of Bot. 88, 869-877 https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.2001.1524
  25. Havaux, M., Greppin, H. and Strasser, R. (1991) Functioning of photosystem I and II in pea leaves exposed heat stress in the presence or absence of light, Analysis using in vivo fluorescence, absorbance, oxygen and photoacoustic measurements, Planta. 186, 88-98
  26. Aung, L. H. (1976) Effects of photoperiod and temperature on vegetative and reproductive responses of Lycoperisicon esculentum Mill., J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 101, 358-360
  27. Kimball, B. A. (1983) Carbon dioxide and agricultural yield: an assemblage and analysis of 430 prior observations, Agron. J. 75, 779-788 https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1983.00021962007500050014x
  28. Ewart, A. J. (1986) On assimilatory inhibition, J. of the Linnean Soc. 31, 364-461
  29. Neales, T. F. and Incoll, L. D. (1968) The control of leaf photosynthesis rate by the level of assimilate concentration in the leaf: a review of the hypothesis, Bot. Rev. 34, 107-125 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02872604
  30. Wang, Z., Yuan, Z. and Quebedeuax, B. (1997) Photoperiod alters diurnal carbon partitioning into sorbitol and other carbohydrates in apple, Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 24, 587-597 https://doi.org/10.1071/PP96134
  31. Wand, S. J. E., Midgley, G. F., Jones, M. H. and Curtis, P. S. (1999) Responses of wild $C_4$ and $C_3$ grasses (Poaceae) species to elevated atmospheric $CO_2$ concentration: a meta-analytic test of current theories and perceptions, Global Change Biol. 5, 723-741 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.1999.00265.x
  32. Daepp, M., Suter, D., Almedia, J. P. F., Isopp, H., Hartwig, U., Frehner, M., Blum, H., Nosberger, J. and Luscher, A. (2000) Yield responses of Lolium perenne swards to free-air $CO_2$ enrichment increased over six years in a high N input system on fertile soil, Global Change Biol. 6, 805-816 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2000.00359.x
  33. Hebeisen, T., Luscher, A., Zanetti, S., Fisher, B. U., Hartwig, U., Frehner, M., Hendry, G. R., Blum, H. and Nosberger, J. (1997) Growth responses of Trifolium repens L. and Lolium perenne L. as monocultures and bi-species mixture to free-air $CO_2$ enrichment and management, Global Change Biol. 3, 149-160 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.1997.00073.x
  34. Jongen, M., Jones, M. B., Hebeisen, T., Blum, H. and Hendrey, G. (1995) The effect of elevated $CO_2$ concentrations on the root growth of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens grown in a FACE system, Global Change Biol. 1, 361-371 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.1995.tb00034.x
  35. Knecht, G. N. and O'Leary, J. W. (1974) Increased tomato fruit development by $CO_2$ enrichment, J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 99, 214-216

Cited by

  1. Review of Long-term Climate Change Research Facilities for Forests vol.18, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5532/KJAFM.2016.18.4.274
  2. Effect of Elevated CO2Concentration and Temperature on the Growth and Ecophysiological Responses of Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) vol.57, pp.2, 2012, https://doi.org/10.7740/kjcs.2012.57.2.106
  3. Effects of the Elevated Temperature and Carbon Dioxide on Vine Growth and Fruit Quality of 'Campbell Early' Grapevines (Vitis labruscana) vol.32, pp.6, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7235/hort.2014.13059
  4. Changes of Fruit Cracking Percentage and Fruit Shape of 'Hei' Black Tomato with Increased Temperature vol.17, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5532/KJAFM.2015.17.3.202