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Effect of Soil Incorporation of Graminaceous and Leguminous Manures on Tomato (Lycoperiscon esculentum Mill.) Growth and Soil Nutrient Balances

화본과 및 두과 녹비작물 토양환원에 따른 토마토 생육 및 토양 양분수지량 변화

  • Published : 2008.12.31

Abstract

To investigate the effects of incorporation of green manures (GM) into a sandy loam soil on growth, yield, and nutrient uptake of tomato (Lycoperiscon esculentum Mill.) and nutrient balances (input minus offtake of nutrients), five tomato production systems were compared under the condition of plastic film house: 1) a no input system (no additional amendment or inputs, 0-To-0-To); 2) a conventional system (application of N-P-K chemical fertilizers, Cf-To-Cf-To); 3) a leguminous GM-containing system (hairy vetch-tomato-soybean-tomato, Hv-To-Sb-To); 4) a graminaceous GM-containing system (rye-tomato-sudan grass-tomato, Ry-To-Sd-To); and 5) system mixed with leguminous and graminaceous GMs (rye-tomatosoybean- tomato, Ry-To-Sb-To). Here, hairy vetch and rye were cultivated as winter cover crops during late $Dec{\sim}late$ Feb and soybean and sudan grass were cultivated as summer cover crops during late $Jun{\sim}mid$ Aug. All of them cut before tomato planting and then incorporated into soil. Biomass of GMs was greater in summer season than that of winter season. Nitrogen amount fixed by a leguminous plants was about $126\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ per a cropping season, corresponding to 60% N level needed for tomato production, which was comparable to 50 and $96\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ fixed by rye and sudan grass. As a result, tomato yield of Hv-To-Sb-To system (legume GM treatment) was similar to Cf-To-Cf-To (conventional), but that in Ry-To-Sd-To system (graminaceous GM treatment) was not attained to a half level of conventional treatment. Nutrient budgets for N, P and K on the conventional farm were balanced or somewhat positive exception for minus-balanced K. Ry-To-Sd-To system showed a positive N, P and K budgets due to the depressed growth of tomato which is caused by high C/N ratio and low N-fixing capacity of the GMs. Inversely, those of Hv-To-Sb-To system were negative in all of N, P and K budgets because of increased growth and yield of tomato with high nitrogen-supplying capacity as well as low C/N ratio of leguminous GM. In conclusion, although conventional cultivation has an advantage in relation to N, P and K nutrient budgets rather than GM-incorporated systems, a leguminous GMs could be recommended as nitrogen reservoir and soil amendment because the yield of tomato between use of leguminous GM and conventional cultivation was not only significantly difference, but also GMs commonly reduce nutrient loss and improve microbial communities.

Keywords

Green manure;Organic farming;Cropping system;Nutrient budget

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