DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Components in Commercial Douchi-a Chinese Fermented Black Bean Product by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

  • Kim, Joo-Shin (Kwangil Synthesis Plant Co. Ltd.) ;
  • Chung, Hau-Yin (Department of Biology, Food and Nutritional Sciences Programme, and Food Science Laboratory, The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
  • Published : 2008.03.31

Abstract

Douchi, a popular seasoning agent in Chinese dishes prepared by the Aspergillus oryzae fermentation of black beans, was subjected to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for its volatile components. A total of 73 components were identified in two commercial brands, which were positively confirmed and quantified. Among the common components in the two brands were 18 acids, 12 alcohols, 11 aldehydes, 9 esters, 1 furan, 11 other oxygen-containing compounds, 4 pyrazines, 2 pyridines and 5 miscellaneous compounds. The most abundant components found were acetic acid, benzoic acid, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2-piperidinone, 3-methylbutanoic acid, maltol, 4-ethylphenol, 2-methylpropanoic acid, butanoic acid, 2-pyrrolidinone, all fatty acids and some esters.

References

  1. Wang HL, Fang SF. 1986. History of Chinese fermented foods. In Indigenous fermented food of non-western origin. Hesseltine CW, Wang HL, eds. J. Cramer Press, Berline and Stuttgart
  2. Saono S, Hull RR, Dhamcharee B. 1986. A concise handbook of indigenous fermented foods in the ASCA countries. Canberra, Australia, The Government of Australia
  3. Dean JR, Kane M. 1993. Instrumentation for supercritical fluid extraction. In Applications of Supercritical Fluids Industrial Analysis. Dean JR, ed. Ch. 3. Blackie Academic & Professional, London, New York. p 46-73
  4. Van den Dool H, Kratz PD. 1963. A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed liquid partition chromatography. J Chromatog 2: 463-471 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)80947-X
  5. Chung HY. 1999. Volatile components in fermented soybean (Glycine max) curds. J Agric Food Chem 47: 2690-2696 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf981166a
  6. Chou CC, Hwan CH. 1994. Effect of ethanol on the hydrolysis of protein and lipid during the aging of a Chinese fermented soya bean curd-sufu. J Sci Food Agric 66: 393-398 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740660318
  7. Aldrich. 2007. Flavors and Fragrances. International Edition, Sigma-Aldrich Co., Milwaukee, WI
  8. Fenaroli G. 1995. Fenaroli's handbook of flavor ingredients. 3rd ed. Burdock GA, ed. CRC Press, Boca Rota, Florida, USA
  9. Van den Ouweland GA, Schutte L. 1978. Flavor problems in the application of soy protein materials as meat substitutes. In Flavor of Foods and Beverages. Charalambous GL, Inglett GE, eds. Academic, New York, USA. p 33-42
  10. Wu YFG, Cadwallader KR. 2002. Characterization of the aroma of a meat-like process flavoring from soybean-based enzyme hydrolyzed vegetable protein. J Agric Food Chem 50: 2900-2907 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0114076
  11. Chung HY. 2000. Volatile flavor components in red fermented soybean (Glycine max) curds. J Agric Food Chem 48: 1803-1809 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf991272s
  12. Owens JD, Allagheny N, Kipping G, Ames JM. 1997. Formation of volatile compounds during Bacillus subtilis fermentation of soya beans. J Sci Food Agric 74: 132-140 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199705)74:1<132::AID-JSFA779>3.0.CO;2-8
  13. Hwan CH, Chou CC. 1999. Volatile components of the Chinese fermented soya bean curd as affected by the addition of ethanol in ageing solution. J Sci Food Agric 79: 243-248 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199902)79:2<243::AID-JSFA179>3.0.CO;2-I
  14. Tanaka T, Muramatsu K, Kim HR, Watanabe T, Takeyasu M, Kanai Y, Kiuchi K. 1998. Comparison of volatile compounds from Chungkuk-Jang and Itohiki-Natto. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 62: 1440-1444 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.62.1440

Cited by

  1. High-Throughput Sequencing of Microbial Community Diversity and Dynamics during Douchi Fermentation vol.11, pp.12, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168166