DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Characterization of Fish Oil Extracted from Fish Processing By-products

  • Byun, Hee-Guk (Faculty of Marine Bioscience and Technology, Kangnung National University) ;
  • Eom, Tae-Kil (Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Jung, Won-Kyo (Department of Marine Life Science, Chosun University) ;
  • Kim, Se-Kwon (Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University)
  • Published : 2008.03.31

Abstract

To improve the utilization of fish processing by-products, fish oils were extracted from hoki, yellowfin sole, mackerel, and horse mackerel, and their compositions were examined. The proximate compositions obtained for these 4 species of by-product revealed they were composed of 68.1$\sim$78.1% moisture, 1.2$\sim$1.6% ash, and 13.8$\sim$18.8% protein. Fish oils extracted from the hoki, yellowfin sole, mackerel, and horse mackerel were 5.5, 9.4, 13.4, and 10.3%, respectively. The total lipids extracted from the by-products of the 4 species were 6.21, 10.43, 12.81 and 10.06%, of which neutral lipids accounted for 77.38, 77.46, 87.21 and 86.79%, respectively. Neutral lipid analysis by TLC showed that triacylglycerol was the major component, while 1,3- and 1,2-diacylglycerols, free fatty acids, free sterols, and sterol esters were present as minor components. The major fatty acids were palmitic acid, stearic acid, and oleic acid. DHA and EPA were contained at levels of 0.2$\sim$4.7% and 3.7$\sim$9.5%, respectively, in the 4 types of fish oil. The fish oils extracted from the dark muscle fish, mackerel and horse mackerel, had greater polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents than those of the white muscle fish species, hoki and yellowfin sole.

References

  1. Garg ML, Bosscheietor BB, Coulander CDL. 1985. The inverse relation between fish composition and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. New Engl J Med 312: 1205-1209 https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198505093121901
  2. Maruyama K, Nishikawa M. 1995. Physiological function of a fish oil component and its application to foods. Food Chemicals 4: 31-37
  3. Barakat SMM, Kawai Y, Yamazaki K, Miyashita K, Suzuki T. 2007. Effect of treatment with electrolyzed NaCl solutions and essential oil compounds on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of carp fillets. Food Chem 101: 1492-1498 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.057
  4. Horrocks LA, Yeo YK. 1999. Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid. Pharmaceutical Research 40: 211-225 https://doi.org/10.1006/phrs.1999.0495
  5. Leaf A, Kang JX, Xiao YF, Billman GE, Voskuyl RA. 1999. The antiarrhythmic and anticonvulsant effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids. J Membrane Biology 172: 1-11 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002329900578
  6. Zlatanos S, Laskarids K. 2007. Seasonal variation in the fatty acid composition of three Mediterranean fish-sardine (Sardina pilchardus), anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) and picarel (Spicara smaris). Food Chem 103: 725-728 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.013
  7. Huynh MD, Kitts DD, Hu C, Trites AW. 2007. Comparison of fatty acid profiles of spawning and non-spawning Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 146: 504-511 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2006.11.023
  8. Toppe J, Albrektsen S, Hope B, Aksnes A. 2007. Chemical composition, mineral content and amino acid and lipid profiles in bones from various fish species. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 146: 395-401 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2006.11.020
  9. Robin JH, Regost C, Arzel J, Kaushik SJ. 2003. Fatty acid profile of fish following a change in dietary fatty acid source: model of fatty acid composition with a dilution hypothesis. Aquaculture 225: 283-293 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00296-5
  10. Babbit KJ. 1990. Intrinsic quality and species of North Pacific fish. In Making Profits Out of Seafood Wastes. Keller S, ed. Proceedings of International Conference on Fish By-Products, Anchorage, AK, April 25-27, University of Alaska Sea Grant, Fairbanks. p 39-43
  11. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 14th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA
  12. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37: 911-917 https://doi.org/10.1139/o59-099
  13. AOCS. 1999. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 5th ed. Firestone D, ed. American Oil Chemists' Society, Campaign, IL
  14. Rouser G, Kritchevsky D, Simon G, Nelson GJ. 1967. Quantitative analysis of brain and spinach leaf lipids employing silicic acid column chromatography and acetone for elution of glycolipids. Lipids 2: 37-42 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02531998
  15. Zuta CP, Simpson BK, Chan HM, Phillips L. 2003. Concentrating PUFA from mackerel processing waste. J Am Oil Chem Soc 80: 933-936 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-003-0799-5
  16. Chantachum S, Benjakul S, Sriwirat N. 2000. Separation and quality of fish oil from precooked and non-precooked tuna heads. Food Chem 69: 289-294 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00266-6
  17. Copeman L, Parrish CC. 2004. Lipids classes, fatty acids, and sterols in seafood from Gilbert Bay, southern Labrador. J Agric Food Chem 52: 4872-4881 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034820h
  18. Passi S, Cataudella S, Marco PD, Simone FD, Rastrelli L. 2002. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant levels in muscle tissue of different Mediterranean marine species of fish and shellfish. J Agric Food Chem 50: 7314-7322 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020451y
  19. Jacquot R. 1961. Organic constituents of fish and other aquatic animal foods. In Fish as Food. Borgstrom G, ed. Academic Press, New York. Vol 1, p 146-209
  20. Okland HMW, Stoknes IS, Remme JF, Kjerstad M, Synnes M. 2005. Proximate composition, fatty acid and lipid class composition of the muscle from deep-sea teleosts and elasmobranches. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 140: 437-443 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2004.11.008
  21. Remme JF, Synnes M, Stoknes IS. 2005. Chemical characterisation of eggs from deep-sea sharks. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 141: 140-146 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2005.02.008
  22. Piggott GM, Tucker BW. 1990. Effects of Technology on Nutrition. Marcel Dekker, NewYork
  23. Sathivel S, Prinyawiwakul W, Grimm CC, King JM, Lloyd S. 2002. Composition of crude oil recovered from catfish viscera. J Am Oil Chem Soc 79: 989-992 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-002-0592-5
  24. Zenebe T, Ahlgren G, Boberg M. 1998. Fatty acid content of some freshwater fish of commercial importance from tropical lakes in the Ethiopian rift valley. J Fish Biol 53: 987-1005 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1998.tb00458.x
  25. Vileg P, Body DB. 1988. Lipid contents and fatty acid composition of some New Zealand freshwater finfish and marine finfish, shellfish and roes. New Zealand J Marine Freshwater Res 22: 151-157 https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.1988.9516287
  26. Guerrero JLG, Belarbi EH. 2001. Purification process for cod liver oil polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Am Oil Chem Soc 78: 477-484 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-001-0289-9