Application of Fixatives to Freeze Dried Rose Petals

  • Jo, Myung-Hwan (Department of Biology, Pusan National University) ;
  • Kim, Tae-Yun (Department of Biology, Pusan National University) ;
  • Hong, Jung-Hee (Department of Biology, Pusan National University)
  • Published : 2008.11.30


The effect of freeze drying and fixatives in post-treating freeze drying on the morphological properties of the rose (Rosa hybrida L.) petal were investigated for the production of high quality of freeze dried rose. The morphology including form and color of the dried flowers of cut rose were depended on the drying methods. The drying time was extended due to their density and water content, and was shorter in the freeze drying than that in the natural and hot air drying. Freeze dried process for dried flowers took 2 days in a freeze dryer and did not cause shrinkage or toughening of rose petal being dried, preserving its natural shape and color. The diameter of freeze dried flowers showed little reduction compared to fresh flowers. In Hunter color values of petals of freeze dried flowers, L and a values were high and showed little variations in comparison to fresh petals. Freeze drying led to a noticeable increase in anthocyanin contents in petals, suggesting that anthocyanin contents play an important role in the acquisition of freezing tolerance. Exposure of flowers to freeze drying was accompanied by an increase in the carotenoid content. In the post-treating freeze drying, epoxy resin, a fixative, applied alone or in combination to petals of freeze dried flowers showed efficient coating for the protection from humidity and sunlight. Combined application of epoxy and acetone to freeze dried petals permitted maintenance of natural color and excellent tissue morphology, showing color stability and shiny texture in surface of petals. These findings suggest that application of fixatives to freeze dried rose petals improves the floral preservation and epoxy coating provides good quality in the freeze dried flower product.


  1. Mellor J. D., 1987, Fundamentals of Freeze Drying, Academic Press, London, 16-337pp
  2. Franks F., 1989, Improved freeze-drying : An analysis of the basic scientific principles, Process Biochem., 24, 3-7
  3. Sadikoglu H., Liapis A. I., Crosser O. K., 1998, Optimal control of the primary and secondary drying stages of bulk solution freeze drying in trays, Drying Technol., 16, 399-341
  4. Sagara Y., Ichiba J., 1994, Measurement of transport properties for the dried layer of coffee solution undergoing freeze drying, Drying Technol., 12, 1081-1103
  5. Waterkeyn S., 1988, The Creative Art of Dried Flower, Kingdom, 282pp
  6. Park Y. J., Heo B. G., Kang Y. K., 2001, The present situation and prospect of dried flower and pressed flower processing, Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol., 19, 262-269
  7. Sho C. S., Park Y. J., Lee I. B., Heo B. G., 2001, Color and morphological characteristic of freeze-dried rose, J. Kor. Flower Res. Soc., 9, 87-90
  8. BeMiller J. N., Whistler R. L., 1996, Carbohydrates, In Fennema O. R.(ed.), Food Chemistry, 3th ed., Marcel Dekker, 157-223
  9. Sohn K. H., Kwon H. J., Kim E. Y., 2003, Effects of drying methods on shape and color of Rosa hybrida, Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol., 21, 136-140
  10. Arnon D., 1949, Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplast : Polyphenol oxidase in Beta vulgaris, Plant Physiol., 24, 1-15
  11. Yeo M. K., Cho E. J. 2004, Effects of $TiO_2$ photodegradation on leaching from epoxy resin chemical in water and biological toxicity, J. Environ. Toxicol., 19, 271-278
  12. Francis J. P., 1982, Analysis of anthocyanin, In Markakis P.(ed.), Anthocyanin as Food Colors, Academic Press, 181-208
  13. Leng P., Itamura H., Yamamura H., Deng X. M., 2000, Anthocyanin accumulation in apple and peach shoots during cold acclimation, Sci. Hort., 83, 43-50
  14. McKown R., Kuroki R., Warren G., 1996, Cold responses of Arabidopsis mutants impaired in freezing tolerance, Exp. Bot., 47, 1919-1925
  15. Reynolds J., Park J. W., Choi A. J., 2002, Physicochemical properties of pacific whiting surimi as affected by various freezing and storage conditions, J. Food Science, 67, 2072-2078
  16. Jolanki R., Kanerva L., Estlander T., 2000, Epoxy resins, In Kanerva L., Elsner P., Wahlberg J. R., Maibach H. I.(ed.), Handbook of Occupational Dermatology, Springer-Verlag, 570-590
  17. Krokida M. K., Maroulis Z. B., 1997, Effect of drying method on shrinkage and porosity, Drying Technol., 15, 2441-2458
  18. Demmig-Adams B., Adams W. W., 1996, The role of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids in the protection of photosynthesis, Trends in Plant Science, 1, 21-26