What happens after IT adoption?: Role of habits, confirmation, and computer self-efficacy formed by the experiences of use

정보기술 수용 후 주관적 지각 형성: 사용 경험에서 형성된 습관, 기대일치, 자기효능감의 역할

  • 김용영 ;
  • 오상조 (동양공업전문대학 전산정보학부 인터넷비즈니스과) ;
  • 안중호 (서울대학교 경영대학 경영학과) ;
  • 장정주 (서울대학교 경영대학 경영학과)
  • Published : 2008.03.31


Researchers have been continuously interested in the adoption of information technology (IT) since it is of great importance to the information systems success and it is also an important stage to the success. Adoption alone, however, does not ensure information systems success because it does not necessarily lead to achieving organizational or individual objectives. When an organization or an individual decide to adopt certain information technologies, they have objectives to accomplish by using those technologies. Adoption itself is not the ultimate goal. The period after adoption is when users continue to use IT and intended objectives can be accomplished. Therefore, continued IT use in the post-adoption period accounts more for the accomplishment of the objectives and thus information systems success. Previous studies also suggest that continued IT use in the post-adoption period is one of the important factors to improve long-term productivity. Despite the importance there are few empirical studies focusing on the user behavior of continued IT use in the post-adoption period. User behavior in the post-adoption period is different from that in the pre-adoption period. According to the technology acceptance model, which explains well about the IT adoption, users decide to adopt IT assessing the usefulness and the ease of use. After adoption, users are exposed to new experiences and they shape new beliefs different from the thoughts they had before. Users come to make decisions based on their experiences of IT use whether they will continue to use it or not. Most theories about the user behaviors in the pre-adoption period are limited in describing them after adoption since they do not consider user's experiences of using the adopted IT and the beliefs formed by those experiences. Therefore, in this study, we explore user's experiences and beliefs in the post-adoption period and examine how they affect user's intention to continue to use IT. Through deep literature reviews on the construction of subjective beliefs by experiences, we draw three meaningful constructs which theoretically have great impacts on the continued use of IT: perceived habit, confirmation, and computer self-efficacy. Then, we examine the role of the subjective beliefs on the cognitive/affective attitudes and intention to continue to use that IT. We set up a research model and conducted survey research. Since IT use implies interactions among a user, IT, and a task, we carefully selected the sample of users using same/similar IT to perform same/similar tasks, to exclude unwanted influences of other factors than subjective beliefs on the IT use. We also considered that the sample of users were able to make decisions to continue to use IT volitionally or at least quasi-volitionally. For each construct, we used measurement items recognized for reliability and widely used in the previous research. We slightly modified some items proper to the research context and a pilot test was carried out for forty users of a portal service in a university. We performed a full-scale survey after verifying the reliability of the measurement. The results show that the intention to continue to use IT is strongly influenced by cognitive/affective attitudes, perceived habits, and computer self-efficacy. Confirmation affects the intention to continue indirectly through cognitive/affective attitudes. All the constructs representing the subjective beliefs built by the experiences of IT use have direct and/or indirect impacts on the intention of users. The results also show that the attitudes in the post-adoption period are formed, at least partly, by the experiences of IT use and newly shaped beliefs after adoption. The findings suggest that subjective beliefs built by the experiences have deep impacts on the continued use. The results of the study signify that while experiencing IT in the post-adoption period users form new beliefs, attitudes, and intentions which may be different from those of the pre-adoption period. The results of this study partly demonstrate that the beliefs shaped by the behaviors, those are the experiences of IT use, influence users' attitudes and intention. The results also suggest that behaviors (experiences) also change attitudes while attitudes shape behaviors. If we combine the findings of this study with the results of the previous research on IT adoption, we can propose a cycle of IT adoption and use where behavior shapes attitude, the attitude forms new behavior, and that behavior shapes new attitude. Different from the previous research, the study focused on the user experience after IT adoption and empirically demonstrated the strong influence of the subjective beliefs formed in the post-adoption period on the continued use. This partly confirms the differences between attitudes in the pre-adoption and in the post-adoption period. Users continuously change their attitudes and intentions while experiencing (using) IT. Therefore, to make users adopt IT and to make them use IT after adoption is a different problem. To encourage users to use IT after adoption, experiential variables such as perceived habit, confirmation, and computer self-efficacy should be managed properly.


  1. Aarts, H. and Dijksterhuis, A., "Habits as Knowledge Structures: Automaticity in Goal-Directed Behavior," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 78, No. 1, 2000, pp. 53-63 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.78.1.53
  2. Agarwal, R. and Karahanna, E., "Time Flies When You Are Having Fun: Cognitive Absorption and Beliefs About Information Technology Usage," MIS Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 4, December 2000, pp. 665-694 https://doi.org/10.2307/3250951
  3. Ajzen, I., "Residual Effects of Past on Later Behavior: Habituation and Reasoned Action Perspective," Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2002, pp. 107-122 https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0602_02
  4. Ajzen, I., "The Theory of Planned Behavior," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50, 1991, pp. 179-211 https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
  5. Bagozzi, R.P. and Burnkrant, R.E., "Attitude Organization and the Attitude-Behavior Relationship," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 37, No. 6, 1979, pp. 913-929 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.6.913
  6. Bandura, A., Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1997
  7. Bandura, A., "Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change," Psychological Review, Vol. 84, No. 2, 1977a, pp. 191-215 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
  8. Bandura, A., Social Learning Theory, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1977b
  9. Bandura, A., "Reflections on Self-Efficacy," Advances in Behavioral Research and Therapy, Vol. 1, 1978, pp. 237-269 https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6402(78)90012-7
  10. Bandura, A., Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social-Cognitive View, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, NJ, 1986
  11. Bargh, J.A., "Conditional Automaticity: Varieties of Automatic Influence in Social Perception and Cognition," in Unintended Thought, Uleman, J.S and Bargh, J.A. (Eds.), The Guilford Press, New York, 1989, pp. 3-51
  12. Bem, D.J., "Self-Perception Theory," in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Vol.6, Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1972, pp. 1-62
  13. Bentler, P.M. and Speckart, G., "Models of Attitude-Behavior Relationships," Psychological Review, Vol. 86, 1979, pp. 452-464 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.86.5.452
  14. Bergeron, F., Raymond, L., Rivard, S., and Gara, M.-F., "Determinants of EIS Use: Testing a Behavioral Model," Decision Support Systems, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1995, pp. 131-146 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-9236(94)00007-F
  15. Betz, N.E. and Hackett, G., "The Relationships of Career-related Self-Efficacy Expectations to Perceived Career Options in College Women and Men," Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 28, No. 5, 1981, pp. 399-410 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.28.5.399
  16. Bhattacherjee, A., "An Empirical Analysis of the Antecedents of Electronic Commerce Service Continuance," Decision Support Systems, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2001a, pp. 201-214 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-9236(01)00111-7
  17. Bhattacherjee, A., "Understanding Information Systems Continuance: An Expectation-Confirmation Model," MIS Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2001b, pp. 351-370 https://doi.org/10.2307/3250921
  18. Bhattacherjee, A. and Premkumar, G., "Understanding Changes in Belief and Attitude Toward Information Technology Usage: A Theoretical Model and Longitudinal Test," MIS Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 2, June 2004, pp. 229-254 https://doi.org/10.2307/25148634
  19. Burkhardt, M.E. and Brass, D.J, "Changing Patterns or Patterns of Change: The Effects of a Change in Technology on Social Network Structure and Power," Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 35, No.1, March 1990, pp. 104-127 https://doi.org/10.2307/2393552
  20. Burton-Jones, A. and Straub, D.W., Jr., "Reconceptualizing System Usage: An Approach and Empirical Test," Information Systems Research, Vol. 17, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 228-246 https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1060.0096
  21. Chaiken, S. and Stangor, C., "Attitudes and Attitude Change," Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 38, 1987, pp. 575-630 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.38.020187.003043
  22. Compeau, D.R. and Higgins, C.A., "Application of Social Cognitive Theory to Training for Computer Skills," Information Systems Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1995a, pp. 118-143 https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.6.2.118
  23. Compeau, D.R. and Higgins, C.A., "Computer Self-efficacy: Development of a Measure and Initial Test," MIS Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 2, 1995b, pp. 189-221 https://doi.org/10.2307/249688
  24. Compeau, D.R., Higgins, C.A., and Huff, S., "Social Cognitive Theory and Individual Reactions to Computing Technology: A Longitudinal Study," MIS Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 2, June 1999, pp. 145-158 https://doi.org/10.2307/249749
  25. Conner, M. and Armitage, C.J., "Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review and Avenues for Further Research," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 28, No. 15, August 1998, pp. 1429-1464 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01685.x
  26. Conner, M., Sheeran, P., Norman, P., and Armitage, C.J., "Temporal Stability as a Moderator of Relationships in the Theory of Planned Behaviour," British Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 39, 2000, pp. 469-493 https://doi.org/10.1348/014466600164598
  27. Crites, S.L. Jr., Farbrigar, L.R. and Petty, R.E., "Measuring the Affective and Cognitive Properties of Attitudes: Conceptual and Methodological Issues," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 20, No. 6, 1994, pp. 619-634 https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167294206001
  28. Davis, F.D., "Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology," MIS Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1989, pp. 319-340 https://doi.org/10.2307/249008
  29. Davis. F.D., Bagozzi, R.P. and Warshaw, P.R. "User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Models," Management Science, Vol. 35, No. 8, 1989, pp. 982-1003 https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.35.8.982
  30. Deng, X., Doll, W.J. and Truong, D., "Computer Self-Efficacy in an Ongoing Use Context," Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 23, No. 6, November-December 2004, pp. 395-412 https://doi.org/10.1080/01449290410001723454
  31. Fazio, R.H. and Zanna, M.P., "Direct Experience and Attitude-Behavior Consistency," in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology Vol. 14, Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1981, pp. 161-202
  32. Festinger, L., A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Row and Peterson, Evanston, IL, 1957
  33. Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I., Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Addision-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1975
  34. Fornell, C. and Lacker, D., "Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error," Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, February 1981, pp. 39-50 https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312
  35. Frayne, C.A. and Latham, G.P., "The Application of Social Learning Theory to Employee Self-Management of Attendance," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 72, No. 3, 1987, pp. 387-392 https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.3.387
  36. Gefen, D., Straub, D.W. and Boudreau M-C., "Structural Equation Modeling and Regression: Guidelines for Research Practice," Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 7, October 2000, pp. 1-77
  37. Gist, M.E., Schwoerer, C., and Rosen, B., "Effects of Alternative Training Methods on Self-efficacy and Performance in Computer Software Training," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 74, 1989, pp. 994-891
  38. Hair, J.E., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L. and Black, W.C., Multivariate Data Analysis, (5th ed.), Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998
  39. Hill, T., Smith, N.D. and Mann, M.F., "Role of Efficacy Expectations in Predicting the Decision to Use Advanced Technologies: The Case for Computers," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 72, No. 2, 1987, pp. 307-313 https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.2.307
  40. Hu, L. and Bentler, P.M., "Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives," Structural Equation Modeling, Vol. 6, 1999, pp. 1-55 https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
  41. Jasperson, J., Carter, P. E. and Zmud, R. W., "A Comprehensive Conceptualization of Post-Adoptive Behaviors Associated with Information Technology Enabled Work Systems," MIS Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 3, September 2005, pp. 525-557 https://doi.org/10.2307/25148694
  42. Johnson, R.D. and Marakas, G.M., "Research Report: The Role of Behavioral Modeling in Computer Skills Acquisition-Toward Refinement of the Model," Information Systems Research, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2000, pp. 402-417 https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.11.4.402.11869
  43. Karahanna, E., Straub, D.W., and Chervany, M.L., "Information Technology Adoption across Time: A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Pre-adoption and Post-adoption Beliefs," MIS Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 2, June 1999, pp. 183-213 https://doi.org/10.2307/249751
  44. Kim, S.S. and Malhotra, N.K., "A Longitudinal Model of Continued IS Use: An Integrative View of Four Mechanisms Underlying Postadoption Phenomena," Management Science, Vol. 51, No. 5, May 2005, pp. 741-755 https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1040.0326
  45. Knussen, C., Yule, F., MacKenzie, J., and Wells, M., "An Analysis of Intentions to Recycle Household Waste: The Roles of Past Behaviour, Perceived Habit, and Perceived Lack of Facilities," Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 24, 2004, pp. 237-246 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2003.12.001
  46. LaTour, S.A. and Peat, N.C., "Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Consumer Satisfaction Research," in Advances in Consumer Research Vol. 8, Wilkie, W.L. (Ed.), Association for Consumer Research, Ann Arbor, MI, 1979, pp. 431-437
  47. Limayem, M. and Hirt, S.G., "Force of Habit and Information Systems Usage: Theory and Initial Validation," Journal of the Association of Information Systems, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2003, pp. 65-97 https://doi.org/10.17705/1jais.00030
  48. MaAllister, D.J., "Affet- and Cognitionbased Trust as Foundations for Interpersonal Cooperation in Organizations," Academy of Management Jouranl, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1995, pp. 24-59 https://doi.org/10.2307/256727
  49. Marakas, G.M., Yi, M.Y. and Johnson, R.D., "The Multilevel and Multifaceted Character of Computer Self-efficacy: Toward Clarification of the Construct and an Integrative Framework for Research," Information Systems Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1998, pp. 126-163 https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.9.2.126
  50. McGuire, W.J., "Attitudes and Attitude Change," in Handbook of Social Psychology, Chapter 19, Lindzey, G. and Aronson, E. (Eds.), Random House, New York, 1985, pp. 233-346
  51. Melone, N.P., "A Theoretical Assessment of the User-Satisfaction Construct in Information Systems Research," Management Science, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1990, pp. 76-91 https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.36.1.76
  52. Moore, G.C. and Benbasat, I., "Development of an Instrument to Measure the Perceptions of Adopting an Information Technology Innovation," Information Systems Research, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1991, pp. 192-222 https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.2.3.192
  53. Nunnally, J.C., Psychometric Theory, McGraw Hill, NY, 1967
  54. Oliver, R.L., Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer, Irwin McGrwa-Hill, Boston, MA, 1997
  55. Olson, J.M. and Zanna, M.P., "Attitudes and Attitude Change," Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 44, 1993, pp. 117-154 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.44.020193.001001
  56. Ouellette, J.A. and Wood, W., "Habit and Intention in Everyday Life: The Multiple Processes by Which Past Behavior Predicts Future Behavior," Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 124, No. 1, July 1998, pp. 54-74 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.54
  57. Rai, A., Lang, S.S. and Welker, R.B., "Assessing the Validity of IS Success Models: An Empirical Test and Theoretical Analysis," Information Systems Research, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2002, pp. 50-69 https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.
  58. Roca, J.C., Chiu, C.M. and Martinez, F.J., "Understanding e-Learning Continuance Intention: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 64, No. 8, August 2006, pp. 683-696 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2006.01.003
  59. Schwartz, A., Junglas, I., Krotov, V. and Chin, W.W., "Exploring the Role of Experience and Compatibility in Using Mobile Technologies," Information Systems and e-Business Management, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2004, pp. 337-356 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10257-004-0046-2
  60. Seddon, P.B., "A Respecification and Extension of the DeLone and McLean Model of IS Success," Information Systems Research, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1997, pp. 240-253 https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.8.3.240
  61. Spreitzer, G.M., "Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation," Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38, No. 5, October 1995, pp. 1442-1465 https://doi.org/10.2307/256865
  62. Staples, D.S., Hulland, J.S. and Higgins, C.A., "A Self-efficacy Theory Explanation for the Management of Remote Workers in Virtual Organizations," Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 3, No. 4, June 1998, pp. 758-776
  63. Steenkamp, J.B.E.M. and van Trijp, H.C.M., "The Use of LISREL in Validating Marketing Constructs," International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 8, No. 4, November 1991, pp. 283-299 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8116(91)90027-5
  64. Taylor, S. and Todd, P.A., "Understanding Information Technology Usage: A Test of Competing Models," Information Systems Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1995, pp. 144-176 https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.6.2.144
  65. Terry, D.J., Hogg, M.A. and White, K.M., "The Theory of Planned Behaviour: Self-Identity, Social Identity and Group Norms," British Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 38, 1999, pp. 225-244 https://doi.org/10.1348/014466699164149
  66. Thompson, R.L., Higgins, C.A. and Howell, J.M., "Influence of Experience on Personal Computer Utilization: Testing a Conceptual Model," Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 11, No. 1, Summer 1994, pp. 167-187 https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.1994.11518035
  67. Thong, J.Y.L., Hong, S.J., and Tam, K.Y., "The Effects of Post-Adoption Beliefs on the Expectation-Confirmation Model for Information Technology Continuance," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 64, No. 8, August 2006, pp. 799-810 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2006.05.001
  68. Triandis, H.C., Attitude and Attitude Change, Wiley, New York, 1971
  69. van den Putte, B., 20 Years of the Theory of Reasoned Action of Fishbein and Ajzen: A Meta-Analysis, Unpublished Manuscript, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1991
  70. Venkatesh, V., "Determinants of Perceived Ease of Use: Integrating Control, Intrinsic Motivation, and Emotion into the Technology Acceptance Model," Information Systems Research, Vol. 11, No. 4, December 2000, pp. 342-365 https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.11.4.342.11872
  71. Venkatesh, V. and Davis, F.D., "A Model of the Antecedents of Perceived Ease of Use: Development and Test," Decision Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1996, pp. 451-481 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.1996.tb01822.x
  72. Verplanken, B., "Habits and Implementation Intentions," in The ABC of Behavioural Change, Kerr, J., Weitkunat, R., and Moretti M. (Eds.), Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 2005, pp. 99-109
  73. Verplanken, B. and Aarts, H., "Habit, Attitude, and Planned Behavior: Is Habit an Empty Construct or an Interesting Case of Goal-directed Automaticity?," European Review of Social Psychology, Vol. 10, 1999, pp. 101-134 https://doi.org/10.1080/14792779943000035
  74. Verplanken, B., Aarts, H., van Knippenberg, A. and Moonen, A., "Habit Versus Planned Behavior: A Field Experiment," British Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 37, 1998, pp. 111-128 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1998.tb01160.x
  75. Verplanken, B. and Orbell, S., "Reflections on Past Behavior: A Self-Report Index of Habit Strength," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1313-1330 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2003.tb01951.x
  76. Yang, H. and Yoo, Y., "It's All Attitude: Revisiting the Technology Acceptance Model," Decision Support Systems, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2004, pp. 19-31 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-9236(03)00062-9
  77. Yaverbaum, G.J. and Nosek, J., "Effects of Information System Education and Training on User Satisfaction," Information & Management, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1992, pp. 217-225 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-7206(92)90024-A
  78. Zajonc, R.B., "The Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monographs, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1968, pp. 1-27