Estimation of Benzene Emissions from Mobile Sources in Korea

국내 이동오염원에서 발생되는 벤젠 배출량 산정

  • Lee, Ju-Hyoung (Air Pollution Cap System Division, Environmental Cap Management Department National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Cha, Jun-Seok (Air Pollution Cap System Division, Environmental Cap Management Department National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Hong, Ji-Hyung (Air Pollution Cap System Division, Environmental Cap Management Department National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Jung, Dong-Il (Air Pollution Cap System Division, Environmental Cap Management Department National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Kim, Ji-Young (Air Pollution Cap System Division, Environmental Cap Management Department National Institute of Environmental Research)
  • 이주형 (국립환경과학원 환경총량관리연구부 대기총량과) ;
  • 차준석 (국립환경과학원 환경총량관리연구부 대기총량과) ;
  • 홍지형 (국립환경과학원 환경총량관리연구부 대기총량과) ;
  • 정동일 (국립환경과학원 환경총량관리연구부 대기총량과) ;
  • 김지영 (국립환경과학원 환경총량관리연구부 대기총량과)
  • Published : 2008.02.29


Benzene is a very harmful and toxic compound known as human carcinogen by all routes of exposure. Owing to the risky feature of benzene, several countries such as Japan, UK and EU have established the ambient air quality standard and protect from that risk of it. Korea also has designated it as one of the criteria air pollutants and established the concentration limit ($5\;{\mu}g/m^3$) in the air and is going to apply the standard from 2010. Benzene is emitted from various sources such as combustion plants, production processes, waste treatment facilities and also automobiles. Mobile source is known as one of the major emission sources of benzene. In this study, we estimated the domestic emissions of benzene from mobile source and compared the results with those of advanced countries. Mobile source was divided into 2 categories, Le., on-road source and non-road source. The total emissions of benzene from mobile source were estimated as 3,106 tons/yr and 1,612 tons/yr was emitted from on-road source and 1,494 tons/yr was from non-road source. Emission ratio of benzene from on-road source showed that 80.0% was from passenger cars, 10.1% was from taxis, 7.2% was from light-duty vehicles, 2.5% was from heavy-duty vehicles and 0.2% was from buses. In the case of non-road source, the distribution showed that 66.3% was from construction machineries, 14.5% was from locomotives, 11.7% was from ships, 7.1% was from agriculture equipments and 0.5% was from aircrafts. The cold-start emissions were estimated as 942 tons/yr and this value was almost 1.5 times greater than that for hot engine emissions (608 tons/yr). In addition, the fuel-based distribution was 65.9%, 31.1% and 2.8% from gasoline, LPG and diesel vehicles, respectively. The emission ratio from mobile source occupied 65% and 30% of total benzene emissions in USA and UK, respectively. In case of Korea, the emission ratio of benzene from mobile source occupied 29% (15% from on-road source, 14% from non-road source) which showed similar value with UK.


Benzene;Benzene emissions;Mobile sources;On-road;Non-road;Cold start


  1. 류정호, 한종수, 임철수, 엄명도, 황진우, 유승화, 이태우, 유영 숙, 김기호(2003) 자동차 오염물질 배출계수 산정 에 관한 연구( I ): 중∙대형버스의 오염물질 배출 계수 산정, 국립환경과학원 교통환경연구소, 연구 보고서 2003-24-696
  2. 엄명도, 김태승, 황종진, 공유덕, 김종춘, 류정호, 박용희, 서충 열, 이종태, 황순호, 정인영, 김대식, 장은성, 김선 문, 임철수, 신용훈, 김기호, 신원근, 정성용, 김명 신, 정충섭 (1999) 경유엔진에 의한 대기오염물질 저감대책에 관한 연구 (III), 국립환경과학원 교통 환경연구소, 연구보고서 99-20-557
  3. 정우성, 남정석, 한석윤, 깅용기, 권성태, 박덕신, 서정원, 김문 현, 송문석, 오병진, 표영덕, 강성인, 양중식, 배형민 (1997) 디젤기관의 배출가스 대기오염 현황 및 저감방안에 관한 연구, 철도청, 한국철도기술연구 원 최종보고서 1997-0005.
  4. 정일록, 김중춘, 류정호, 황순호, 임철수, 이호영, 김기호, 김준 명, 한영출, 송보영(1997) 경유엔진에 의한 대기오 염물질 저감대책에 관한 연구( I ): 연구건설용 엔 진에 사용되는 경유엔진의 오염물질 배출실태조 사, 국립환경과학원 교통환경연구소, 연구보고서 97-19-519
  5. Akko, P. and N.O. Nylund (2003) Particle emissions at moderate and cold temperature using different fuels, SAE Technical paper series 01, 3285
  6. Joumard, R., M. André, R. Vidon, P. Tassel, and C. Pruvost (2000) Influence of driving cycles on unit emissions form passenger cars, Atmospheric Environment, 34, 4621-4628
  7. Laurikko, J., L. Erlandsson, and R. Abrahamsson (1995) Exhaust emissions in cold ambient conditions: con- siderations for a European Test Procedure, SAEpaper 950929, SAE Technical paper series, Warrendale, USA
  8. Weilenmann, M., P. Soltic, C. Saxer, A.-M. Foress, and N. Heeb (2005) Regulated and non-regulated diesel and gasoline cold start emissions at different temperatures, Atmospheric Environment, 39, 2433- 2441
  9. 류정호, 임철수, 유영숙, 한종수, 김선문, 황진우, 엄명도, 김진 열, 전민선, 김영훈, 이종태, 임윤성 (2004) 자동차 오염물질 배출계수 산정에 관한 연구(II): 경유트 럭의 오염물질 배출계수 산정, 국립환경과학원 교통환경연구소, 연구보고서 2004-26-732
  10. 환경부(2006) 대기환경연보 2005
  11. Heeb, N.V., A.-M. Forss, C.J. Saxer, and P. Wilhelm (2003) Methane, benzene and alkyl benzene cold start emission data of gasoline-driven passenger cars representing the vehicle technology of the last two decades, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 5185- 5195
  12. 국립환경과학원(2004) 대기정책지원시스템(Clean Air Policy Support System, CAPSS)
  13. U.S. EPA (2007a) 2002 National emissions inventory data & documentation, 2002inventory.html
  14. 류정호, 유영숙, 임철수, 김선문, 김종춘, 권상일, 정성운, 김대 욱(2005) 자동차 오염물질 배출계수 산정에 관한 연구 (III): 소형승합차 오염물질 배출계수 산정, 국립환경과학원, 연구보고서 2005-32-777
  15. 홍지형, 차준석, 정동일, 강경희, 이주형, 이상목, 임철수 (2007) 대기 배출원의 벤젠 배출현황, 국립환경과 학원 연구보고서
  16. Ellenhorm, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux (1987) Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning
  17. Ntziachristos, L. and Z. Samaras (2000) COPERT III Computer program to calculate emissions from road transport, Technical Report 49, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark
  18. Dore, C.J., J.D. Watterson, T.P. Murrells, N.R. Passant, M. M. Hobson, S.L. Baggott, G. Thistlethwaite, J.W. L. Goodwin, K.R. King, M. Adams, C. Walker, M. K. Downes, P.J. Coleman, R.A. Stewart, A. Wagner, J. Sturman, C. Conolly, H. Lawrence, Y. Li, J. Jackson, T. Bush, S. Grice, and N. Brophy (2006) UK Emission of Air Pollutants 1970 to 2004, AEA Energy & Environment, December 2006
  19. U.S. EPA (2007b) Technology Transfer Network, Clearinghouse for inventories & emission factors, http:// html
  20. Anderson, C., S. Augustine, D. Embt, T. Thrasher, and J. Plante (1997) Emission and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) reference manual, U.S Federal Aviation Administration, A170083, April 1997, Washington, DC
  21. 조완근, 문경조(1999) 휘발유 및 환경 담배 연기 관련 벤젠 노출, 한국환경과학회지, 8(3), 319-323
  22. Weilenmann, M. (2001) Cold start and cold ambient emissions of Euro II cars, Proceedings of international symposium for transport and air pollution, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 17-19 September 2001
  23. U.S. EPA (1991) Nonroad engine and vehicle emission study report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-21A-2001, November 1991, Washington, DC

Cited by

  1. Emissions and Their Contribution Analysis by Source Categories in Korea vol.28, pp.2, 2012,