Estimation of Source Apportionment of Ambient PM2.5 at Western Coastal IMPROVE Site in USA

미국 서부 해안 IMPROVE 측정소에 대한 대기 중 PM2.5의 오염원 기여도 추정

  • Hwang, In-Jo (Department of Environmental Engineering, Daegu University) ;
  • Kim, Dong-Sool (College of Environment & Applied Chemistry / Environmental Research Center, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Hopke, Philip K. (Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University)
  • 황인조 (대구대학교 환경공학과) ;
  • 김동술 (경희대학교 환경.응용화학대학 대기오염연구실 및 환경연구센터) ;
  • Published : 2008.02.29


In this study, the chemical compositions of $PM_{2.5}$ samples collected at the Redwood National Park IMPROVE site in California from March 1988 to May 2004 were analyzed to provide source identification and apportionment. A total of 1,640 samples were collected and 33 chemical species were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission, proton elastic scattering analysis, photon induced X-ray fluorescence, ion chromatography, and thermal optical reflectance methods. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to develop source profiles and to estimate their mass contributions. The PMF modeling identified five sources and the average mass was apportioned to motor vehicle (35.8%, $1.58\;{\mu}g/m^3$), aged sea salt (23.2%, $1.02\;{\mu}g/m^3$), fresh sea salt (21.4%, $0.94\;{\mu}g/m^3$), wood/field burning (16.1%, $0.71\;{\mu}g/m^3$), and airborne soil (3.5%, $0.15\;{\mu}g/m^3$), respectively. To analyze local source impacts from various wind directions, the CPF and NPR analyses were performed using source contribution results with the wind direction values measured at the site. These results suggested that sources of $PM_{2.5}$ are also sources of visibility degradation and then source apportionment studies derived for $PM_{2.5}$ are also used for understanding visibility problem.


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