DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Characteristics of Solid-state Fermented Feed and its Effects on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing-finishing Pigs

  • Hu, Jiankun (National Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Lu, Wenqing (National Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Wang, Chunlin (National Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhu, Ronghua (National Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Qiao, Jiayun (National Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2008.01.15
  • Accepted : 2008.05.23
  • Published : 2008.11.01

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of solid-state fermentation of a compound pig feed on its microbial and nutritional characteristics as well as on pig performance and nutrient digestibility. A mixed culture containing Lactobacillus fermentum, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Bacillus subtilis was used for solid-state fermentation and solid-state fermented feed samples were collected on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 30 for microbial counts and chemical analysis. Lactic acid bacteria increased rapidly during the first three days of fermentation and then slowly declined until day 10 and, thereafter, the counts were maintained at about 6.7 log cfu/g for the duration of the fermentation period. Enterobacteria also increased during the first two days, and then fell below the detectable level of the analysis (3.0 log cfu/g). The pH of the fermentation substrate declined from 6.1 at the start of fermentation to 5.7 by day 30. The water-soluble protein content increased from 8.2 to 9.2% while the concentration of acetic acid increased from 16.6 to 51.3 mmol/kg over the 30-day fermentation. At the end of the 30-day fermentation, the solid-state fermented feed was used in a pig feeding trial to determine its effects on performance and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs. Twenty crossbred barrows ($14.11{\pm}0.77kg\;BW$) were allotted into two dietary treatments, which comprised a regular dry diet containing antibiotics and a solid-state fermented feed based diet, free of antibiotics. There was no difference due to diet on pig performance or nutrient digestibility. In conclusion, solid-state fermentation resulted in high counts of lactic acid bacteria and low counts of enterobacteria in the substrate. Moreover, feeding a diet containing solid-state fermented feed, free of antibiotics, can result in similar performance and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs to a regular diet with antibiotics.

Keywords

Solid-state Fermented Feed;Microflora;Nutrient Content;Growing-finishing Pigs

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China

References

  1. Canibe, N. and B. B. Jensen. 2007. Fermented liquid feed and fermented grain to piglets- effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance. Livest. Sci. 108:232-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.01.078
  2. Canibe, N., H. Miettinen and B. B. Jensen. 2007. Effect of adding Lactobacillus plantarum or a formic acid containing product to fermented liquid feed on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance of piglets. Livest. Sci. 114:251-262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.05.002
  3. Cho, J. H., B. J. Min, Y. J. Chen, J. S. Yoo, Q. Wang, J. D. Kim and I. H. Kim. 2007. Evaluation of FSP (fermented soy protein) to replace soybean meal in weaned pigs: growth performance, blood urea nitrogen and total protein concentrations in serum and nutrient digestibility. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1874-1879. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.1874
  4. Canibe, N., E. Virtanen and B. B. Jensen. 2006. Microbial and nutritional characteristics of pig liquid feed during fermentation. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 134:108-123.
  5. Corsetti, A. and L. Settanni. 2007. Lactobacilli in sourdough fermentation. Food Res. Int. 40:539-558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2006.11.001
  6. Bradford, M. M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72:248-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3
  7. Canibe, N. and B. B. Jensen. 2003. Fermented and non-fermented liquid feed to growing pigs: Effect on aspects of gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2019-2031 https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.8182019x
  8. AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, USA.
  9. Huang, C., S. Qiao, D. Li, X. Piao and J. Ren. 2004. Effects of Lactobacilli on the performance, diarrhea incidence, VFA concentration and gastrointestinal microbial flora of weaning pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:401-409. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.401
  10. Kiers, J. L., J. C. Meijer, M. J. R. Nout, F. M. Rombouts, M. J. A. Nabuurs and J. van der Meulen. 2003. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets. J. Appl. Microbiol. 95:545-552. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.02011.x
  11. Kim, Y. G., J. D. Lohakare, J. H. Yun, S. Heo and B. J. Chae. 2007. Effect of feeding levels of microbial fermented soy protein on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:399-404. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.399
  12. Guo, X., D. Li, W. Lu, X. Piao and X. Chen. 2006. Screening of Bacillus strains as potential probiotics and subsequent confirmation of the in vivo effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis MA139 in pigs. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 90:139-146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-006-9067-9
  13. Hong, K. I., C. H. Lee and S. W. Kim. 2004. Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and soybean meal. J. Med. Food 7:430-436. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2004.7.430
  14. Hong, T. T. T. and J. E. Lindberg. 2007. Effect of cooking and fermentation of a pig diet on gut environment and digestibility in growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 109:135-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.01.121
  15. Demeckova, V., D. Kelly, A. G. P. Coutts, P. H. Brooks and A. Campbell. 2002. The effect of fermented liquid feeding on the faecal microbiology and colostrum quality of farrowing sows. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 79:85-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00182-4
  16. Giraffa, G. 2004. Studying of the dynamics of microbial populations during food fermentation. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 28:251-260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.femsre.2003.10.005
  17. Ramli, M. N., Y. Imura, K. Takayama and Y. Nakanishi. 2005. Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse with Japanese Koji by solid-state fermentation and its effects on nutritive value and preference in goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1279-1284. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.1279
  18. Tonheim, S. K., A. Nordgreen, I. Hogoy, K. Hamre and I. Ronnestad. 2007. In vitro digestibility of water-soluble protein fractions of some common fish larval feeds and feed ingredients. Aquaculture 262:426-435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.10.030
  19. Niven, S. J., C. Zhu, D. Columbus, J. R. Pluske and C. F. M. de Lange. 2007. Impact of controlled fermentation and steeping of high moisture corn on its nutritional value for pigs. Livest. Sci. 109:166-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.01.136
  20. Oboh, G. and A. A. Akindahunsi. 2005. Nutritional and toxicological evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisae fermented cassava flour. J. Food Compos. Anal. 18:731-738. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2004.06.013
  21. Oduguwa, O. O., M. O. Edema and A. O. Ayeni. 2007. Physico-chemical and microbiological analyses of fermented corn cob, rice bran and cowpea husk for use in composite rabbit feed. Bioresourse Technol. 99:1816-1820.
  22. van Winsen, R. L., B. A. P. Urlings, L. J. A. Lipman, J. M. A. Snijders, D. Keuzenkamp, J. H. M. Verheijden and F. van Knapen. 2001. Effect of fermented feed on the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:3071-3076. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.67.7.3071-3076.2001
  23. Zhang, W., Z. Xu, J. Sun and X. Yang. 2006. A study on the reduction of gossypol levels by mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of cottonseed meal. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1314-1321. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.1314
  24. Filya, I. and E. Sucu. 2007. The effect of bacterial inoculants and a chemical preservative on the fermentation and aerobic stability of whole-crop cereal silages. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:378-384. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.378

Cited by

  1. MA139 for the production of solid-state fermentation feed vol.49, pp.2, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02647.x
  2. Probiotic levels, chemical composition and fermentative characteristics in solid state fermentation of paper sludge for animal feeding vol.04, pp.12, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2013.412151
  3. Energy and Ileal Digestible Amino Acid Concentrations for Growing Pigs and Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed Fermented or Conventional Soybean Meal vol.27, pp.5, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13612
  4. fed by solid-state fermentation diet vol.23, pp.6, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.12506
  5. Solid-state fermentation of corn-soybean meal mixed feed with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium for degrading antinutritional factors and enhancing nutritional value vol.8, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-017-0184-2
  6. Effect of potential multimicrobe probiotic product processed by high drying temperature and antibiotic on performance of weanling pigs1 vol.89, pp.6, 2011, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2794
  7. The use of co-culturing in solid substrate cultivation and possible solutions to scientific challenges vol.7, pp.4, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.1389
  8. Performance of broilers fed raw or fermented and redried wheat, barley, and oat grains vol.40, pp.13036181, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3906/vet-1505-44