- Volume 21 Issue 8
DOI QR Code
Amount of Cassava Powder Fed as a Supplement Affects Feed Intake and Live Weight Gain in Laisind Cattle in Vietnam
- Ba, Nguyen Xuan ;
- Van, Nguyen Huu ;
- Ngoan, Le Duc ;
- Leddin, Clare M. ;
- Doyle, Peter T.
- Received : 2007.08.25
- Accepted : 2007.12.20
- Published : 2008.08.01
An experiment was conducted in Vietnam to test the hypothesis that supplementation with cassava powder up to 2% of live weight (LW)/d (DM basis) would linearly increase digestible organic matter intake and LW gain of Laisind cattle. There were five treatments: a basal diet of elephant grass fed at 1.25% of LW and rice straw fed ad libitum or this diet supplemented with cassava powder, containing 2% urea, at about 0.3, 0.7, 1.3 or 2.0% LW. The cattle fed cassava powder at about 2.0% LW did not consume all of the supplement, with actual intake similar to the 1.3% LW treatment. Organic matter, digestible organic matter and digestible energy intakes increased (p<0.001) curvilinearly with increased consumption of cassava powder. Rice straw intake declined curvilinearly with increasing intake of cassava powder (p<0.001), and there was a small linear decline (p = 0.01) in grass intake. The substitution rate of cassava powder for forage was between 0.5 and 0.7 kg DM reduction in forage intake per kg DM supplement consumed, with no difference between treatments. Apparent digestibility of organic matter increased (p<0.001) in a curvilinear manner, while digestibility of neutral detergent fibre declined (p<0.001) in a curvilinear manner with increased consumption of cassava powder. Live weight gain increased (p<0.01) linearly with increased consumption of supplement. It was concluded that the amount of cassava powder fed should be limited to between 0.7 and 1.0% LW.
Cassava Powder;Feed Intake;Growth Rate;Cattle;Vietnam
- Terry, R. A., J. M. A. Tilley and G. E. Outen. 1969. Effect of pH on cellulose digestion under in vitro conditions. J. Sci. Food Agric. 20:317-320. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740200514
- Thomas, C., B. G. Gibbs, D. E. Beever and B. R. Thurnham. 1988. The effect of date of cut and barley substitution on gain and on the efficiency of utilisation of grass silage by growing cattle 1. Gains in live weight and its components. Br. J. Nutr. 60:297-306. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19880101
- Stockdale, C. R. 2000. Levels of pasture substitution when concentrates are fed to grazing dairy cows in northern Victoria. Aust. J. Expt. Agric. 40:913-921. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA00034
- Stockdale, C. R., D. W. Dellow, C. Grainger, D. Dalley and P. J. Moate. 1997. Supplements for Dairy Production in Victoria. DRDC, Glen Iris, Australia.
- Osbourn, D. F., R. A. Terry, S. B. Cammell and G. E. Outen. 1970. Some effects of feeding supplements of maize meal and sodium bicarbonate upon the digestion of forage cellulose by sheep. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 29:12A-13A. https://doi.org/10.1079/PNS19700005
- Phengvichith, V. and I. Ledin. 2007. Effect of supplementing gamba grass (Adropogon gayanus) with cassava (Mahinot esculenta Crantz) hay and cassava root chips on feed intake, digestibility and growth in goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20(5):725-732. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.725
- Opatpatanakit, Y., R. C. Kellaway, I. J. Lean, G. Annison and A. Kirby. 1994. Microbial fermentation of cereal grains in vitro. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 45:1247-1263. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9941247
- Opatpatanakit, Y., R. C. Kellaway, I. J. Lean, G. Annison and A. Kirby. 1995. Effects of cereal grains on fibre digestion in vivo. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 46:403-413. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9950403
- Opatpatanakit, Y. 1994. 'Cereal grains/forage interactions in ruminant diets.' PhD Thesis, The University of Sydney.
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1976. Livestock hot weather stress. US Dept. Commerce, National Weather Service Central Region, Registered Operations Manual Lett. C-31-76
- Mould, F. L., E. R. Orskov and S. O. Mann. 1983b. Associative effects of mixed feeds. 1. Effects of type and level of supplementation and the influence of the rumen fluid pH on cellulolysis in vivo and dry matter digestion of various roughages. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 10:15-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(83)90003-2
- Mulholland, J. G., J. B. Coombe and W. R. McManus. 1976. Effect of starch on the utilization by sheep of a straw diet supplemented with urea and minerals. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 27:139-153. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9760139
- Mould, F. L., Orskov, E. R. and S. A. Gauld. 1983a. Associative effects of mixed feeds. II. The effect of dietary addition of bicarbonate salts on the voluntary intake and digestibility of diets containing various proportions of hay and barley. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 10:31-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(83)90004-4
- Knowlton, K. F. 2001. High grain diets for dairy cattle. In 'Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia 2001' (Ed. J. L. Corbett) 13:19-28 (University of New England, Armidale, NSW)
- Makkar, H. P. S. 1991. Anti-nutritional factors in food for livestock. In 'Animal Production in Developing Countries', Proceedings of a symposium British Society of Animal Production Occassional Publication No. 16
- Huhtanen, P. 1991. Associative effects of feeds in ruminants. Nor. J. Agric. Sci. 5:37-57.
- Grant, R. J. and D. R. Mertens. 1992. Influence of buffer pH and raw corn starch addition on in vitro fiber digestion kinetics. J. Dairy Sci. 75:2762-2768. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)78039-4
- Heard, J. W., D. C. Cohen, P. T. Doyle, W. J. Wales and C. R. Stockdale. 2004. Diet Check - a tactical decision support tool for feeding decisions with grazing dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 112:177-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2003.10.012
- General Statistics Office. 2006. Statistical Yearbook of Vietnam 2005 pp. 738 Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi for the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, General Statistics Office).
- Easley, J. F., J. T. McCall, G. K. Davis and R. L. Shirley. 1970. Nutrition laboratory of Department of Animal Science, University of Florida.
- Dixon, R. M. and C. R. Stockdale. 1999. Associative effects between forages and grains: consequences for feed utilisation. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 50:757-773. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR98165
- Doyle, P. T., S. A. Francis and C. R. Stockdale. 2005. Associative effects between feeds when concentrate supplements are fed to grazing dairy cows: a review of likely impacts on metabolisable energy supply. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 56:1315-1329. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR05087
- Beever, D. E., S. B. Cammell, C. Thomas, M. C. Spooner, M. J. Haines and D. L. Gale. 1988. The effect of date of cut and barley substitution on gain and on the efficiency of utilisation of grass silage by growing cattle 2. Nutrient supply and energy partition. Br. J. Nutr. 60:307-319. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19880102
- Ba, N. X., L. D. Ngoan, C. M. Gloag and P. T. Doyle. 2005. Feed resources for cattle in Quang Ngai, south central Vietnam. Proceedings of AHAT/BSAS International conference: Integrating systems to meet the challenges of globalisation. 2:4
- AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia.
- Wales, W. J., J. W. Heard, C. Ho, C. M. Leddin, C. R. Stockdale, G. P. Walker and P. T. Doyle. 2006. Profitable feeding of dairy cows in irrigated dairy farms in northern Victoria. Aust. J. Expt. Agric. 46:743-752. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA05357
- Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharide in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
- Vearasilp, T. and C. Mikled. 2001. Site and extent of cassava starch digestion in ruminants. http://www.mekarn.org/procKK/choc.htm.
- Tudor, G. D. and B. W. Norton. 1982. The nutritive value of cassava for cattle. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 14:599.
- Wanapat, M. and S. Khampa. 2007. Effect of level of supplementation of concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip on rumen ecology, microbial N supply and digestibility of nutrients in beef cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20(1):75-81.
- Chajula, P., W. Ngampongsai and M. Wanapat. 2007.Effects of replacing ground corn with cassava chip in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial populations in goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20(10):1557-1566. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.1557
- Practice on improving fattening local cattle production in Vietnam by increasing crude protein level in concentrate and concentrate level vol.45, pp.7, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-013-0407-2
- Influence of varying levels of supplemental cassava root meal without or with groundnut cake on performance of growing Laisind cattle vol.46, pp.6, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-014-0586-5
- Effect of concentrate supplementation on nutrient digestibility and growth of Brahman crossbred cattle fed a basal diet of grass and rice straw vol.57, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-015-0068-y