DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Feeding Extruded Soybean, Ground Canola Seed and Whole Cottonseed on Ruminal Fermentation, Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Profile in Early Lactation Dairy Cows

  • Chen, P. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology China Agricultural University) ;
  • Ji, P. (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology China Agricultural University) ;
  • Li, Shengli (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology China Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2007.02.05
  • Accepted : 2007.05.02
  • Published : 2008.02.01

Abstract

Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 43 days in milk (DIM) were used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square to determine the effect of feeding extruded soybean, ground canola seed and whole cottonseed on ruminal fermentation and milk fatty acid profile. One hundred and twenty lactating Holstein cows, 58 (${\pm}31$) DIM, were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized block design to study the effects of the three types of oilseeds on production parameters and milk fatty acid profile. The four diets were a control diet (CON) and three diets in which 10% extruded soybean (ESB), 5% ground canola seed (GCS) and 10% whole cottonseed (WCS) were included, respectively. Diets consisted of concentrate mix, corn silage and Chinese wild rye and were balanced to similar concentrations of CP, NDF and ADF. Ruminal fermentation results showed that ruminal fermentation parameters, dry matter intake and milk yield were not significantly affected by treatments. However, compared with the control, feeding cows with the three oilseed diets reduced C14:0 and C16:0 and elevated C18:0 and C18:1 concentrations in milk, and feeding ESB increased C18:2 and cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Production results showed that feeding ESB tended to increase actual milk yield (30.85 kg/d vs. 29.29 kg/d) and significantly decreased milk fat percentage (3.53% vs. 4.06%) compared with CON. Milk protein (3.41%) and solid non-fat (13.27%) from cows fed WCS were significantly higher than from cows fed CON (3.24% and 12.63%, respectively). Milk urea N concentrations from cows fed the ESB (164.12 mg/L) and GCS (169.91 mg/L) were higher than cows fed CON (132.31 mg/L). However, intake of DM, 4% fat corrected milk, energy corrected milk, milk fat and protein yields, milk lactose percentage and yield, somatic cell count and body condition score were not affected by different treatments. The proportion of medium-chain fatty acid with 14 to 16 C units in milk was greatly decreased in cows fed ESB, GCS and WCS. Feeding ESB increased the concentration in milk of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and cis9, trans11-CLA content by 16.67%, 37.36%, 95.24%, 72.22%, respectively, feeding GCS improved C18:0 and C18:1 by 17.41% and 33.28%, respectively, and feeding WCS increased C18:0 by 31.01% compared with feeding CON. Both ruminal fermentation and production trial results indicated that supplementation of extruded soybean, ground canola seed and whole cottonseed could elevate the desirable poly- and monounsaturated fatty acid and decrease the medium chain fatty acid and saturated fatty acid content of milk fat without negative effects on ruminal fermentation and lactation performance.

Keywords

Extruded Soybean;Ground Canola Seed;Whole Cottonseed;Ruminal Fermentation;Milk Fatty Acid;Dairy Cows

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Dairy Key Technologies R & D

References

  1. Palmquist, D. L. and T. C. Jenkins. 1980. Fat in lactation rations: review. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1-14. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)82881-5
  2. Murphy, J. J., G. P. McNeill, J. F. Connolly and P. A. Gleeson. 1990. Effect on cow performance and milk fat composition of including full fat soybeans and rapeseeds in the concentrate mixture for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Res. 57:295-306. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900026947
  3. AOAC. 1997. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th edn. 3rd rev. Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, Gaithersburg, MD.
  4. Broderick, G. A. and J. H. Kang. 1980. Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and amino acids in ruminal fluids and in vitro media. J. Dairy Sci. 63:64-75. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)82888-8
  5. Chen, K. J., D. F. Jan, P. W. S. Chiou and D. W. Yang. 2002. Effects of Dietary Heat Extruded Soybean Meal and Protected Fat Supplement on the Production, Blood and Ruminal Characteristics of Holstein Cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:821-827. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.821
  6. Abu-Ghazaleh, A., D. J. Schingoethe and A. R. Hippen. 2002. Feeding fish meal and extruded soybeans enhances the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk. J. Dairy Sci. 85:624-631. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74116-7
  7. Aldrich, C. G., N. R. Merchen, J. K. Drackley, G. C. Fahey, Jr. and L. L. Berger. 1997. The effects of chemical treatment of whole canola seed on intake, nutrient digestibilities, milk production, and milk fatty acids of Holstein cows. J. Anim. Sci. 75:512-521. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.752512x
  8. Aminot-Gilchrist, D. V. and H. D. I. Anderson. 2004. Insulin resistance-associated cardiovascular disease: Potential benefits of conjugated linoleic acid. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79(Suppl. 6):1159-1163. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/79.6.1159S
  9. DePeters, E. J., S. J. Taylor, A. A. Franke and A. Aguirre. 1985. Effects of feeding whole cottonseed on composition of milk. J. Dairy Sci. 68:897-902. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(85)80907-3
  10. Dhiman, T. R., E. D. Helmink, D. J. McMahon, R. L. Fife and M. W. Pariza. 1999. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese from cows fed extruded oilseeds. J. Dairy Sci. 82:412-419. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75247-1
  11. Crocker, C. L. 1967. Rapid determination of urea nitrogen in serum or plasma without deproteinization. Am. J. Med. Technol. 33:361-365.
  12. Delbecchi, L., C. E. Ahnadi, J. J. Kennelly and P. Lacasse. 2001. Milk fatty acid composition and mammary lipid metabolism in Holstein cows fed protected or unprotected canola seeds. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1375-1381. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)70168-3
  13. Chichlowski, M. W., J. W. Schroeder, C. S. Park, W. L. Keller and D. E. Schimek. 2005. Altering the fatty acids in milk fat by including canola seed in dairy cattle diets. J. Dairy Sci. 88:3084-3094. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72990-8
  14. Chilliard, Y. 1993. Dietary fat and adipose tissue metabolism in ruminants, pigs and rodents: review. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3897-3931. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77730-9
  15. Palmquist, D. L., A. D. Beaulieu and D. M. Barbano. 1993. Feed and animal factors influencing milk fat composition. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1753-1771. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77508-6
  16. Reveneau, C., C. V. D. M. Ribeiro, M. L. Eastridge, N. R. St-Pierre and J. L. Firkins. 2005. Processing whole cottonseed moderates fatty acid metabolism and improves performance by dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 88:4342-4355. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73121-0
  17. SAS Institute Inc. 1999. SAS User's Guide: Statistics. Version 8 Ed. SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC.
  18. NRC. 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.
  19. Oldick, B. S. and J. L. Firkins. 2000. Effects of degree of fat saturation on fiber digestion and microbial protein synthesis when diets are fed twelve times daily. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2412-2420. https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.7892412x
  20. Madison-Anderson, R. J., D. J. Schingoethe, M. J. Brouk, R. J. Baer and M. R. Lentsch. 1997. Response of lactating cows to supplemental unsaturated fat and niacin. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1329-1338. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76061-2
  21. Ney, D. M. 1991. Potential for enhancing the nutritional properties of milk fat. J. Dairy Sci. 74:4002-4012. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78595-0
  22. Lee, S. W., J. S. Yang, Y. Chouinard and B. N. Van. 2006. Effect of dietary soybeans extruded at different temperatures on dairy cow milk composition. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:541-548.
  23. Lin, T. Y., C. W. Lin and Y. J. Wang. 2003. Production of conjugated linoleic acid by enzyme extract of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCRC 14079. Food Chem. 83:27-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00032-3
  24. Magdi, M. M. 2001. Analytical techniques for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) analysis. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 103:594-594.
  25. Kennelly, J. J. 1996. The fatty acid composition of milk fat as influenced by feeding oilseeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 60:137-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(96)00973-X
  26. Khorasani, G. R. and J. J. Kennelly. 1998. Effect of added dietary fat on performance, rumen characteristics, and plasma metabolites of midlactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2459-2468. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)70137-7
  27. Harvatine, D. I. and J. L. Firkins. 1997. Whole linted cottonseed as forage substitute fed with ground or steam-flake corn digestibility and performance. J. Dairy Sci. 80:2062-2068. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74274-4
  28. Hermansen, J. E. 1995. Prediction of milk fatty acid profile in dairy cows fed dietary fat differing in fatty acid composition. J. Dairy Sci. 78:872-879. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76700-5
  29. Johnson, K. A., R. L. Kincaid, H. H. Westberg, C. T. Gaskins, B. K. Lamb and J. D. Cronrath. 2002. The effect of oilseeds in diets of lactating cows on milk production and methane emissions. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1509-1515. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74220-3
  30. Harfoot, C. G. and G. P. Hazlewood. 1988. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. In: The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem (Ed. P. N. Hobson). Elsevier Applied Science Publication, London. UK. pp. 285-322.
  31. Sullivan, H. M., J. K. Bernard, H. E. Amos and T. C. Jenkins. 2004. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed whole cottonseed with elevated concentrations of free fatty acids in the oil. J. Dairy Sci. 87:665-671. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73209-9
  32. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  33. Whitlock, L. A., D. J. Schingoethe, A. R. Hippen, K. F. Kalscheur, R. J. Baer, N. Ramaswamy and K. M. Kasperson. 2002. Fish oil and extruded soybeans fed in combination increase conjugated linoleic acids in milk of dairy cows more than when fed separately. J. Dairy Sci. 85:234-243. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74072-1
  34. Solomon, R., L. E. Chase, D. Ben-Ghedalia and D. E. Bauman. 2000. The effect of nonstructural carbohydrate and addition of full fat extruded soybeans on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in the milk fat of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1322-1329. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74998-8
  35. Sukhija, P. S. and D. L. Palmquist. 1988. Rapid method for determination of total fatty acid content and composition of feedstuffs and feces. J. Agric. Food Chem. 36:1202-1206. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00084a019
  36. Schauff, D. J. and J. H. Clark. 1992. Effects of feeding diets containing calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids to lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:2990-3002. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)78063-1
  37. Wildman, E. E., G. M. Jones, P. E. Wagner, R. L. Bowman, H. F. Troutt and T. N. Lesch. 1982. A dairy cow body condition scoring system and its relationship to selected production haracteristics. J. Dairy Sci. 65:495-501. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82223-6
  38. Wu, Z. and J. T. Huber. 1994. Relationship between dietary fat supplementation and milk protein concentration in lactating cows: a review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 39:141-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(94)90180-5
  39. Block, E., L. D. Muller, L. C. Griel, Jr. and D. L. Garwood. 1981. Brown midrib-3 corn silage and heated extruded soybeans for early lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 64:1813-1827. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(81)82770-1
  40. Dhiman, T. R., L. D. Satter, M. W. Pariza, M. P. Gali and K. Albright. 1997. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk from cows offered diets rich in linoleic and linolenic acid. J. Dairy Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):184(Abstr.).
  41. Erwin, E. S., G. J. Marco and E. M. Emery. 1961. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44:1768-1777. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(61)89956-6
  42. Griinari, J. M., K. V. Nurmela, D. A. Dwyer, D. M. Barbano and D. E. Bauman. 1999. Variation of milk fat concentration of conjugated linoleic acid and milk fat percentage is associated with a change in ruminal biohydrogenation. J. Anim. Sci. 77(Suppl. 1):117(Abstr.).
  43. Mabjeesh, S. J., J. Galindez, O. Kroll and A. Arieli. 2000. The Effect of Roasting Nonlinted Whole Cottonseed on Milk Production by Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 83:2557-2563. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75148-4
  44. Xu, D. R. 2006. The summarization of the Chinese dairy industry In: China Statistics Yearbook. (Ed. C. G.. Liu). China Agricultral Press, Beijing, China. pp. 41-44.

Cited by

  1. Effect of oilseed type on milk fatty acid composition of individual cows, and also bulk tank milk fatty acid composition from commercial farms vol.11, pp.02, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731116001403
  2. Effect of dietary inclusion of date seed (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on intake, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid profile of Holstein dairy cows vol.50, pp.7, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1576-9
  3. Apparent recovery of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids from feed in cow milk: A meta-analysis of the importance of dietary fatty acids and feeding regimens in diets without fat supplementation vol.98, pp.9, 2015, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-9459
  4. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows vol.98, pp.9, 2015, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-9786