In vitro Nutrient Digestibility, Gas Production and Tannin Metabolites of Acacia nilotica Pods in Goats

  • Barman, K. (National Dairy Research Institute) ;
  • Rai, S.N. (National Dairy Research Institute)
  • Received : 2006.03.08
  • Accepted : 2006.10.11
  • Published : 2008.01.01


Six total mixed rations (TMR) containing 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12% tannin (TMR I-VI), using Accacia nilotica pods as a source of tannin, were used to study the effect of Acacia tannin on in vitro nutrient digestibility and gas production in goats. This study also investigated the degraded products of Acacia nilotica tannin in goat rumen liquor. Degraded products of tannins were identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at different hours of incubation. In vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic matter (IVOMD) were similar in TMR II, and I, but declined (p<0.05) thereafter to a stable pattern until the concentration of tannin was raised to 10%. In vitro crude protein digestibility (IVCPD) decreased (p<0.05) with increased levels of tannins in the total mixed rations. Crude protein digestibility was much more affected than digestibility of dry matter and organic matter. In vitro gas production (IVGP) was also reduced (p<0.05) with increased levels of tannins in the TMR during the first 24 h of incubation and tended to increase (p>0.05) during 24-48 h of incubation. Gallic acid, phloroglucinol, resorcinol and catechin were identified at different hours of incubation. Phloroglucinol and catechin were the major end products of tannin degradation while gallate and resorcinol were produced in traces. It is inferred that in vitro nutrient digestibility was reduced by metabolites of Acacia nilotica tannins and ruminal microbes of goat were capable of withstanding up to 4% tannin of Acacia nilotica pods in the TMR without affecting in vitro nutrient digestibility.


  1. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Edition, (Ed. Kenneth Helrich) Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Suite 400, 2200 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22201, USA.
  2. Alam, M. R., M. R. Amin, A. K. M. A. Kabir, M. Moniruzzaman and D. M. McNeill. 2007. Effect of tannin in Acacia nilotica, Albizia procera and Sesbania acculeata foliage determined in vitro, in sacco and in vivo. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20(2): 220-228.
  3. Ally, K. and N. Kunjikutty. 2003. Effect and nature of tannins in tree leaves on feed intake and digestibility of nutrients in goats. Anim. Nutr. Feed Technol. 3:75-81.
  4. Arunachalam, M., N. Mohan, R. Sugadev, P. Chellappan and A. Mahadevan. 2003. Degradation of (+)-catechin by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MTC 127. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1621:261-265.
  5. Ayoub, S. M. H. 1985. Flavanol molluscicides from the Sudan Acacias. Int. J. Crude Drug Res. 23:87-90.
  6. Barman, K. and S. N. Rai. 2000. Role of Tannin in plant animal relationship- a review. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 53:390-410.
  7. Barman, K. and S. N. Rai. 2003a. Comparative evaluation of cotton seed cake and Leucaena leaf meal on per se profiles of amino acids, tannin and their influence on digestion kinetics. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 20:378-388.
  8. Barman, K. and S. N. Rai. 2003b. Potential of Mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) as an animal feed. Indian Dairyman, 55:59- 62.
  9. Barman, K. and S. N. Rai. 2003c. Potential of babul pods and leaves (Acacia nilotica) as an animal feed. Indian Farming. 53: 26-27.
  10. Barman, K. and S. N. Rai. 2004. Chemical composition and In Sacco degradability of nutrient of few agro-industrial byproducts. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 21:26-29.
  11. Barman, K. and S. N. Rai. 2005. Nutritional potentiality of Acacia nilotica pods as a ruminant feed. Feedstuffs, 77:12-13.
  12. Barman, K. and S. N. Rai. 2006. Utilization of tanniniferous feeds: 1. Chemical composition, amino acid profile, and tannin fractionation of certain Indian agro-industrial byproducts. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 76:71-80.
  13. Brooker, J. D., L. A. 'O' Donovan, I. Skene, K. Clarke, L. Blackall and P. Muslera. 1994. Streptococcus caprinus sp. Nov., a tannin-resistant ruminal bacterium from feral goats. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 18:313-318.
  14. Degen, A. A., K. Becker, H. P. S. Makkar and N. Borowy. 1995. Acacia saligna as a fodder tree for desert livestock and the interaction of its tannins with fiber fractions. J. Sci. Food Agric. 68:65-71.
  15. Glick, Z. and M. A. Joslyn. 1970. Food intake depression and other metabolic effects of tannic acid in rat. J. Nutr. 100:509- 515.
  16. Hagerman, A. E., C. T. Robbins, Y. Weerasuriya, T. C. Wilson, and C. Mcarthur. 1992. Tannin chemistry in relation to digestion. J. Range Manag. 45:57-62.
  17. Herring, H., J. D. Reed and J. Hanson. 1996. Difference in Sesbania sesban accession in relation to their phenolic concentration and high performance fingerprints. J. Sci. Food Agric. 71:92-98.<92::AID-JSFA556>3.0.CO;2-1
  18. Jain, D.K., K. N. S. Sharma, T. K. Walli and S. N. Rai. 1996. Estimates of nutrient requirement and availability for bovine population across major states of India. NDRI publication No. 281.
  19. Kondo, M., K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2007. Ensiled or oven dried green tea byproduct as protein feedstuffs: Effect of tannin on nutritive value in goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20(6):880- 886.
  20. Krebs, G. L., D. M. Howard and K. Dods. 2007. The effect of feeding Acacia saligna on feed intake, nitrogen balance and rumen metabolism in sheep. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20(9): 1367-1373.
  21. Lowry, B. J., C. S. McSweeney and B. Palmer. 1996. Changing perceptions of the effect of plant phenolics on nutrient supply in the ruminant. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 47:829-842.
  22. McDougall, E. F. 1948. Studies on ruminant saliva. The composition and output of sheep's saliva. Biochem. J. 43:99- 109.
  23. Makkar, H. P. S., B. Singh and S. S. Negi. 1990b. Tannin level and their degree of polymerisation and specific activity in some agro-industrial byproducts. Biological waste. 31:137-144.
  24. Makkar, H. P. S., M. Blummel, N. K. Borowy and K. Becker. 1993. Gravimetric determination of tannins and their correlations with chemical and protein precipitation methods. J. Sci. Food Agric. 61:161-165.
  25. Martinez, F. M. and F. J. Moyano. 2003. Effect of tannic acid on in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of some protein sources. J. Sci. Food Agric. 83:456-464.
  26. McLeod, M. N. 1974. Plant tannins-their role in forage quality. Nutr. Abstr. Re. (Series B). 44:803-815.
  27. Murdiati, T. B., C. S. Mcsweeney and J. B. Lowry. 1992. Metabolism in sheep of gallic acid, tannic acid and hydrolyzable tannins from Terminalia oblongata, Aust. J. Agric. Re. 43:1307-1319.
  28. Nelson, K. E., A. N. Pell, P. Schofield and S. Zinder. 1995. Isolation and characterization of an anaerobic ruminal bacterium capable of degrading hydrolysable tannins. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3293-3298.
  29. Ngwa, A. T., I. V. Nsahlai and M. L. K. Bonsi. 2001. The rumen digestion of dry matter, nitrogen and cell wall constituents of the pods of Leucaena leucocephala and some Acacia species. J. Sci. Food Agric. 82:98-106.
  30. Odenyo, A. A. and P. O. Osuji. 1998. Tannin-tolerant ruminal bacteria from East African ruminants. Canadian J. Microbiol. 44:905-909.
  31. Pell, A. N.., T. K. Woolston, K. E. Nelson and P. Schofield. 2001. Tannins: Biological activities and bacterial tolerance. Proceedings of Australian Council of Agricultural Research pp. 121-126.
  32. Porter, L. J., C. N. Hrstich and B. G. Chen. 1986. The conversion of procyanidins and prodelphinidins to cyaniding and delphinidin. Phytochem. 25:223-230.
  33. Punj, M. L.1988. Availability and utilization of non conventional feed resources and their utilization by ruminant in South Asia, In: Non conventional feed resources and fibrous agricultural residues strategies for expanded utilization, proceeding of a consultation held in Hisar, India, from 21-29th March, 1988 (Ed. C. Devendra). pp. 50-81.
  34. Rai, S. N. and P. C. Shukla. 1977. Influence of feeding deoiled Salseed meal (DSSM) with urea and molasses on digestibility and balancing of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in lactating cows. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 47:111-115.
  35. Rai, S. N. and K. Barman. 2004. New Animal Feed Resources: Problems and Potential. In: (Ed. S. N. Rai and J. P. Sehgal) Proceedings of 11th Animal Nutrition Conference on Nutritional technologies for commercialization of animal production systems, held at J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur (MP), India from 5th to 7th Jan., 2004. pp. 1-14.
  36. Rakhmani, S. I. W., J. D. Brooker and G. P. Jones. 2001. HPLC profile of phenolic compounds in the Accession of Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus). In: Proceeding of Australian Council of Agricultural Research, pp. 175-180.
  37. Salawu, M. B., T. Acamovic, C. S. Stewart and F. D. D. Hovell. 1999. Effect of feeding Quabracho tannin diet, with or without a dietary modifier, on rumen function of sheep. Anim. Sci. 69: 265-274.
  38. Smith, M. C. and D. Brown. 2001. Tannins: toxic and antinutritional effects. In: Poisonous plants informational database -Cornell University. toxicants/tannin/toxic_effects.html, pp. 3-5.
  39. Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1989. Statistical Methods, 8th Edition, Iowa University press, Ames, Iowa (USA).
  40. Theodorou, M. K., B. A. Williams, M. S. Dhanoa, A. B. McAllan and J. France. 1994. A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminants feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 48:185-197.
  41. Tilley, J. M. A. and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two stage technique for in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Br. Grassland Soc. 18:104.
  42. Tor, E. R., T. M. Francis, D. M. Holstege and F. D. Galey. 1996. GC/MS determination of pyrogallol and gallic acid in biological matrices as diagnostic indicators of oak exposure. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:1275-1279.
  43. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  44. Waghorn, G. C., I. D. Shelton and W. C. McNabb. 1994. Effect of condensed tannins in Lotus pedunculatus on its nutritive value for sheep. Non nitrogenous aspects, J. Agric. Sci.(Camb). 123: 99-107.
  45. Wang, Y., G. C. Waghorn, T. N. Barry and I. D. Shelton. 1994. The effect of condensed tannins in Lotus corniculatus on plasma metabolism of methionine, cysteine and inorganic sulphate by sheep, Br. J. Nutr. 76:923-925.
  46. Zhu, J., L. J. Filippich and J. Ng. 1995. Rumen involvement in sheep tannic acid metabolism. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 37:436-440.