DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Growth, Nutrient Utilization and Amino Acid Digestibility of Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers Containing Different Amounts of Protein in the Preruminant Period

  • Li, H. ;
  • Diao, Q.Y. ;
  • Zhang, N.F. ;
  • Fan, Z.Y.
  • Received : 2007.09.29
  • Accepted : 2008.01.21
  • Published : 2008.08.01

Abstract

This study was designed to examine the effects of different dietary protein levels on growth performance, nutrient utilization, amino acid (AA) digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of preruminant dairy calves. Fifteen healthy new-born calves were randomly allotted to three experimental groups and fed with different milk replacer that contained 18% (LP), 22% (MP) or 26% (HP) of protein. The results showed that final BW, net gain and ADG were significantly higher in the MP group than in LP and HP groups (p<0.05). In addition, the apparent digestibility of CP in the MP group was significantly higher than in the other two groups (p<0.05). The values of N intake and fecal N excretion were significantly increased following the increase of dietary protein content (p<0.05). However, in all three groups of animals, dietary protein content had no significant effect on urinary N concentration (p>0.05). BUN concentration, on the other hand, decreased as calves grew but increased following the increase of dietary CP content. Furthermore, no significant differences in digestibility of amino acids were observed among these three groups of animals (p>0.05). We concluded that calves fed with milk replacer containing 22% of protein had better growth performance and nutrient utilization as compared to animals treated with milk replacer containing either 18% or 26% of protein.

Keywords

Calves;Dietary Protein Level;Amino Acid;Digestibility;Growth

References

  1. Babu, L. K., H. N. Pandey and A. Sahoo. 2003. Effect of individual versus group rearing and feeding of different levels of milk and skim milk on nutrient utilization in crossbred calves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(10):1455-1459. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.1455
  2. AOAC. 1990. Official Method of Analysis, 15th edn, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, VA.
  3. Chung, T. K. and D. H. Baker. 1992. Ideal amino acid pattern for 10-kilogram pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3102-3111. https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.70103102x
  4. Brosh, A., Y. Aharoni, D. Levy and Z. Holzer. 2000. Effect of dietary protein concentration and source on the growth rate and on body composition of Holstein-Friesian male calves. Anim. Sci. 70:527-536. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800051870
  5. Blome, R. M., J. K. Drackley, F. K. McKeith, M. F. Hutjens and G. C. McCoy. 2003. Growth, nutrient utilization, and body composition of dairy calves fed milk replaces containing different amounts of protein. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1641-1655. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.8161641x
  6. Donnelly, P. E. and J. B. Hutton. 1976a. Effects of dietary protein and energy on the growth of Friesian bull calves. II. Effects of level of feed intake and dietary protein content on body composition. NZ. J. Agric. Res. 19:409-414. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.1976.10420968
  7. Donnelly, P. E. and J. B. Hutton. 1976a. Effects of dietary protein and energy on the growth of Friesian bull calves. I. Food uptake, growth and protein requirements. NZ. J. Agric. Res. 19:289-297. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.1976.10429068
  8. Dabiri, N. and M. L. Thonney. 2004. Source and level of supplemental protein for growing lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 82:3237-3244. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.82113237x
  9. Davis, C. L. and J. K. Drackley. 1998. The Development, nutrition, and management of the young calf. Ames: Iowa State University Press. 207-257.
  10. Gonzalez, F., A. Elias and V. Urquiza. 1990. Effect of different protein levels on the feed of grazing calves. Cuban J. Agric. Sci. 24:159-164.
  11. Hansen, J. A., J. L. Nelssen, R. D. Goodband and T. L. Weeden. 1993. Evaluation of animal protein supplements in diets of early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1853-1862. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.7171853x
  12. Duncan, B. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple 'F' test. Biometric. 11:1-42. https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478
  13. Pattanaik, A. K., V. R. B. Sastry, R. C. Katiyar and Murari Lal. 2003. Influence of grain processing and dietary protein degradability on nitrogen metabolism, energy balance and methane production in young calves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(10):1443-1450. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.1443
  14. NRC. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle, 7th edn. National Academy of Sciences. National Research Council Publication, Washington DC, USA.
  15. Krishna Mohan, D. V. G., D. R. Das and S. K. Ranjhan. 1987. Performance of young crossbred calves fed different levels of milk and different types of calf starters. 3. Growth, feed efficiency and cost of feeding calves from birth to three months of age. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 40:18-22.
  16. Holcombe, D. W., D. R. Hanks, L. J. Krysl, M. B. Judkins, G. M. Niksic and D. M. Hallford. 1994. Effect of age at weaning on intake, insulin-like growth factor I, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and metabolite profiles and growth performance in young lambs. Sheep Res. J. 10(1):25-34.
  17. Henry, Y. and B. Seve. 1993. Feed intake and dietary amino acid balance in growing pigs with special reference to lysine, tryptophan and threonine. Pig News and Info. 14:35-43.
  18. Terosky, T. L., A. J. Heinrichs and L. L. Wilson. 1997. A comparison of milk protein sources in diets of calves up to eight weeks of age. J. Dairy Sci. 80:2977-2983. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76264-7
  19. Singh, R. K., D. N. Verma and H. Q. Husain. 1994. Estimating the requirement of protein for maintenance and growth of female buffalo calves. J. Anim. Nutr. 11:97-100.
  20. Sykes, A. R. and A. C. Field. 1973. Effects of dietary deficiencies of energy, protein and calcium on the pregnant ewe. N serum total protein, albumin, globulin transfer and plasma urea levels. J. Agric. Sci. 100:29-36.
  21. Sengar, S. S., D. C. Joshi and S. B. Johri. 1985. Effect of feeding different levels of protein on nutrient utilization and growth in male buffalo calves. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 2:27-30.
  22. Sahoo, A., S. C. Mishra and N. N. Pathak. 2002. Dietary protein restriction on growth and immuno-biochemical response of crossbred calves during post-ruminant phase of life. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(8):1121-1127. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.1121
  23. Verma, D. N. 1998. Studies on protein requirement of buffalo calves. Buffalo Bulletin. 17:10-13.
  24. Tzeng, D. and C. L. Davis. 1980. Amino acid nutrition of the young calf. Estimation of methionine and lysine requirements. J. Dairy Sci. 63:441-450. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)82951-1
  25. Williams, A. P. and D. Hewitt. 1979. The amino acid requirements of the preruminant calf. Br. J. Nutr. 41:311-319. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19790040
  26. Bartlett, K. S., F. K. McKeith, M. J. VandeHaar, G. E. Dahl and J. K. Drackley. 2006. Growth and body composition of dairy calves fed milk replacers containing different amounts of protein at two feeding rates. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1454-1467. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.8461454x
  27. Jagusch, K. T., B. W. Norton and D. M. Walker. 1970. Body composition studies with the milk-fed lamb. 2. The effect of the age of the lamb and the protein content of the diet on the chemical composition of the body and its organs. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 75:279-285. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600016968
  28. Lohakare, J. D., A. K. Pattanaik and S. A. Khan. 2006. Effect of dietary protein levels on the performance, nutrient balances, metabolic profile and thyroid hormones of crossbred calves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19(11):1588-1596. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.1588
  29. Nyachoti, C. M., F. O. Omogbenigun, M. Rademacher and G. Blank. 2006. Performance responses and indicators of gastronintestinal health in early weaned pigs fed low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets. J. Anim. Sci. 84:125-134. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.841125x
  30. Quigley, J. D., III, T. A. Wolfe and T. H. Elassert. 2006. Effects of additional milk replacer feeding on calf health, growth, and selected blood metabolites in calves. J. Dairy Sci. 89:207-216. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72085-9
  31. Wang, J. F., M. Wang, D. G. Lin, B. B. Jensen and Y. H. Zhu. 2006. The effect of source of dietary fiber and starch on ileal and fecal amino acid digestibility in growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19(7):1040-1046. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.1040

Cited by

  1. Diurnal variation of NMR based blood metabolites in calves fed a high plane of milk replacer: a pilot study vol.13, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-017-1185-2
  2. Decreasing the pH of milk replacer containing soy flour affects nutrient digestibility, digesta pH, and gastrointestinal development of preweaned calves vol.100, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11374
  3. Preweaned heifer management on US dairy operations: Part VI. Factors associated with average daily gain in preweaned dairy heifer calves vol.101, pp.10, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-14022
  4. Evaluation of milk replacer supplemented with lysine and methionine in combination with glutamate and glutamine in dairy calves vol.46, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2018.1436549