Grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) partially reverses high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice

  • Park, Su-Hui ;
  • Park, Tae-Sun ;
  • Cha, Youn-Soo
  • Published : 2008.12.31

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplement in C57BL/6J mice. Thirty mice were divided into three groups; normal diet control group (ND), high fat diet control group (HD) and high fat diet plus grape seed extract supplemented group (HD+GSE). Results were as follows: 1. GSE supplement reduced the weight gain in mice fed high fat diets; epididymal and back fat weights, were lower compared to non-supplemented HD group. 2. Blood lipid concentrations were lower in the HD+GSE group than in the HD group. Serum HDL-C concentrations were higher in the HD+GSE group compared with the other groups. 3. The concentrations of acid-insoluble acylcarnitines, (AIAC) in serum and liver were higher in the HD+GSE group than in the HD group. 4. GSE supplementation increased mRNA levels of lipolytic genes such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-l (CPT-1) and decreased mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). These findings suggest that grape seed extract supplements in high fat diet might normalize body weight, epididymal and back fat weights, lipid concentrations, and carnitine levels through controlling lipid metabolism.

Keywords

Grape seed extract;body weight;lipid concentrations;carnitine;gene expression

References

  1. Bieber LL (1988). Carnitine. Annu Rev Biochem 57:261-283 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bi.57.070188.001401
  2. Bonnefont JP, Demaugre F, Prip-Buus C, Saudubray JM, Brivet M, Abadi N & Thuillier L (1999). Carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiencies. Mol Genet Metab 68:424-440 https://doi.org/10.1006/mgme.1999.2938
  3. Cederblad G & Lindstedt S (1972). A method for the determination of carnitine in the picomole range. Clin Chim Acta 37:235-243 https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-8981(72)90438-X
  4. Finer N (2006). Medical consequences of obesity. Medicine 34:510-514 https://doi.org/10.1053/j.mpmed.2006.09.016
  5. Formiguera X & Canton A (2004). Obesity: epidemiology and clinical aspects. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroentenol 18:1125-1146 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1521-6918(04)00091-5
  6. James PT (2004). Obesity: The worldwide epidemic. Clinics in Dermatology 22:276-280 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2004.01.010
  7. Kim H, Hall P, Smith M, Kirk M, Prasain JK, Barnes S & Grubbs C (2004). Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent. J Nutr 134:3445S-3452S
  8. Kim JY, Nolte LA, Hansen PA, Han DH, Ferguson K, Thompson PA & Holloszy JO (2000). High-fat diet-induced muscle insulin resistance: relationship to visceral fat mass. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 279:R2057-R2065 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.2000.279.6.R2057
  9. Vinson JA, Mandarano MA, Shuta DL, Bagchi M & Bagchi D (2002). Beneficial effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and a niacin-bound chromium in a hamster atherosclerosis model. Mol Cell Biochem 240:99-103 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020611925819
  10. Petro AE, Cotter J, Cooper DA, Peters JC, Surwit SJ & Surwit RS (2004). Fat, carbohydrate, and calories in the development of diabetes and obesity in the C57BL/6J mouse. Metabolism 53:454-457 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2003.11.018
  11. Gabetta B, Fuzzati N, Griffini A, Lolla E, Pace R, Ruffilli T & Peterlongo F (2000). Characterization of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds. Fitoterapia 71:162-175 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(99)00161-6
  12. Ryu MH & Cha YS (2003). The effects of a high-fat or high-sucrose diet on serum lipid profiles, hepatic acyl-CoA synthetase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I, and the acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA levels in rats. J Biochem Mol Biol 36:312-318
  13. Sachan DS, Rhew TH & Ruark RA (1984). Ameliorating effects of carnitine and its precursors on alcohol-induced fatty liver. Am J Clin Nutr 39:738-571 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/39.5.738
  14. Shin ES, Cho SY, Lee EH, Lee SJ, Chang IS & Lee TR (2006). Positive regulation of hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A) activities by soy isoflavones and L-carnitine. Eur J Nutr 45:159-164 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-005-0576-5
  15. Pinent M, Blay M, Blade MC, Salvado MJ, Arola L & Ardevol A (2004). Grape seed-derived procyanidins have an antihyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and insulinomimetic activity in insulin-sensitive cell lines. Endocrinology 145:4985-4990 https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2004-0764
  16. Jang JK & Han JY (2002). The antioxidant ability of grape seed extracts. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology 34:524-528
  17. Sano T, Oda E, Yamashita T, Naemura A, Ijiri Y, Yamakoshi J & Yamamoto J (2005). Anti-thrombotic effect of proanthocyanidin, a purified ingredient of grape seed. Thromb Res 115:115-121 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2004.07.015
  18. Memon RA, Fulle J, Moser AH, Smith PJ, Grunfeld C & Feingold KR (1999). Regulation of putative fatty acid transporters and acyl-CoA synthetase in liver and adipose tissue in ob/ob mice. Diabetes 48:121-127 https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.48.1.121
  19. Mun EG, Soh JR & Cha YS (2007). L-Carnitine reduces obesity caused by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. Food Sci Biotechnol 16:228-233
  20. Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly JE & Kakuda Y (2003). Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality. J Med Food 6:291-299 https://doi.org/10.1089/109662003772519831
  21. Pataki T, Bak I, Kovacs P, Bagchi D, Das DK & Tosaki A (2002). Grape seed proanthocyanidins improved cardiac recovery during reperfusion after ischemia in isolated rat hearts. Am J Clin Nutr 75:894-899 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/75.5.894
  22. Koo BS, Seong SH, Kown DY, Sohn HS & Cha YS (2008). Fermented kochujang supplement shows anti-obesity effects by controlling lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice fed high fat diet. Food Sci Biotechnol 17:336-342
  23. Vaz FM & Wanders RJ (2002). Carnitine biosynthesis in mammals. Biochem J 361:417-429 https://doi.org/10.1042/0264-6021:3610417
  24. Yamakoshi J, Saito M, Kataoka S & Kikuchi M (2002). Safety evaluation of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds. Food Chem Toxicol 40:599-607 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00006-6
  25. Hasler CM (2000). The changing face of functional foods. J Am Coll Nutr 19:499S-506S https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2000.10718972
  26. McGarry JD, Leatherman GF & Foster DW (1978). Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I. The site of inhibition of hepatic fatty acid oxidation by malonyl-CoA. J Biol Chem 253:4128-4136
  27. Suzuki H, Kawarabayasi Y, Kondo J, Abe T, Nishikawa K, Kimura S, Hashimoto T & Yamamoto T (1990). Structure and regulation of rat long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. J Biol Chem 265:8681-8685
  28. Yoo MA, Chung HK & Kang MH (2004). Evaluation of physicochemical properties in different cultivar grape seed waste. Food Sci Biotechnol 13:26-29
  29. Achouri Y, Hegarty BD, Allanic D, Becard D, Hainault I, Ferre P & Foufelle F (2005). Long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase expression is induced by insulin and glucose: Involvement of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c. Biochimie 87:1149-1155 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2005.04.015
  30. Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ, Das DK, Ray SD, Kuszynski CA, Joshi SS & Pruess HG (2000). Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention. Toxicology 148:187-197 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(00)00210-9
  31. Yilmaz Y & Toledo RT (2004). Health aspects of functional grape seed constituents. Trends in Food Science & Technology 15:422-433 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2004.04.006