Differences in Manufacturing Process and Quality between Cheonggukjang for Use in the Raw and Cheonggukjang for Stew

  • Seo, Byoung-Joo (Department of Applied Microbiology, Yeungnam University) ;
  • Kim, Young-Ho (School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kim, Jong-Kyu (Department of Applied Microbiology, Yeungnam University)
  • Published : 2008.12.31


When cheonggukjgang was manufactured using a Bacillus subtilis CH10-1 starter culture, a short-term fermentation for 14-18 hr appeared to be the optimal for the raw cheonggukjang to avoid the formation of a bitter taste and to contain a high concentration of free sugars, whereas a long-term fermentation for more than 4 days was the optimal for the cheonggukjang for stew in order to contain a high concentration of free amino and organic acids, which are responsible for sweet, savory, and bitter tastes present in stewed cheonggukjang, During activation of murine splenic T cells with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the presence of either poly-$\gamma$-glutamic acid ($\gamma$-PGA) or partially hydrolyzed $\gamma$-PGA resulted in reduction in the level of interferon-$\gamma$ production and enhancement in the level of interleukin-5 production, possibly due to suppression of Th1 activity and augmentation of Th2 activity. Taken together these results indicate that the raw cheonggukjang and the cheonggukjang for stew are different in their quality and taste as well as immunomodulating activity.


  1. Lee EJ, Kim JK. Characteristics flavor compounds of traditional Korean chonggukjang. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 13: 566-571(2004)
  2. Lee EJ, Kim JK. Characteristics of taste components of chonggukjang fermented with Bacillus subtilis. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 13: 572-575 (2004)
  3. Sung MH, Park C, Kim CJ, Poo H, Soda K, Ashiuchi M. Natural and edible biopolymer $poly-{\gamma}-glutamic$ acid: Synthesis, production, and application. Chem Rec. 5: 352-366 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1002/tcr.20061
  4. Buescher JM, Margaritis A. Microbial biosynthesis of polyglutamic acid biopolymer and application in the biopharmaceutical, biomedical, and food industries. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 27: 1-19 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1080/07388550601166458
  5. Kang SE, Rhee JH, Park C, Sung MH, Lee I. Distribution of $poly-{\gamma}-glutamate\;({\gamma}-PGA)$ producers in Korean fermented foods, cheonggukjang, doenjang, and kochujang. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 14: 704-708 (2005)
  6. Lee EJ, Kim JK. Optimal fermentation conditions of Bacillus subtilis for cheonggukjang production. J. Resource Development. Yeungnam University, Korea. 23: 63-70 (2004)
  7. Ahn YS, Kim YS, Shin DH. Isolation, identification, and fermentation characteristics of Bacillus sp. with high protease activity from traditional cheonggukjang. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 38: 82-87 (2006)
  8. Choi UK, Kim MH, Lee NH, Jeong YS, Kwon OJ, Kim YC, Hwang YH. The characteristics of cheonggukjang, a fermented soybeand, by the degree of germination of raw soybeans. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 16: 734-739 (2007)
  9. Lee EJ, Kim JK. Flavor components of traditional chonggukjang and cheonggukjang fermented Bacillus subtilis. J. Resource Development. Yeungnam University, Korea. 23: 30-38 (2004)
  10. Rhee JH, Park KH, Yoon KR, Yim CB, Lee IH. Isolation of Bacillus subtilis producing the cheonggukjang with reduced off-flavor by suppressing the growth of bacteria causing off-flavor. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 13: 801-805 (2004)
  11. Yoo JY. Present status of industries and research activities of Korean fermented soybean products. Microorg. Ind. 23: 13-30 (1997)
  12. Jang CH, Lim JK, Kim JH, Park CS, Kwon DY, Kim YS, Shin DH, Kim JS. Change of isoflavone content during manufacturing of cheonggukjang, a traditional Korean fermented soyfood. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 15: 643-646 (2006)
  13. Hong SW, Kim JY, Lee BK, Chung KS. The bacterial biological response modifier enriched cheonggukjang fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 38: 548-553 (2006)
  14. Johnston MR. Sensory Evaluation Method for the Practicing Food Technologist. IFT Short Course, Boston, MA, USA (1979)
  15. Mormak DA, Casida LE. Study of Bacillus subtilis endospores in soil by use of a modified endospore stain. Appl. Environ. Microb. 49: 1356-1360 (1985)
  16. Setsuko I, Sato M, Shibasaki K. Sutdy on the aroma of miso. Nippon Shokuhio Kogyo Gakk. 24: 65-71 (1977) https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk1962.24.65
  17. Park HK, Gil BI, Kim JK. Charateristics of taste components of commercial soybean paste. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 11: 376-379 (2002)
  18. Park YH, Koizumi C, Nonaka J. Effect of humid atmosphere upon the chemical constitution of 'mori'. II. Compositions of organic acids. B. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 39: 1051-1054 (1973) https://doi.org/10.2331/suisan.39.1051
  19. Schlenk J, Gellerman L. Esterification of fatty acids with diazomethane on a small scale. Anal. Chem. 32: 42-141 (1960) https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60157a012
  20. Kageyama H, Mori S, Sato O. The simultaneous measurement of volatile fatty acid and lactic acid in the sludge gas chromatography. Anim. Sci. Technol. 44: 465-469 (1972)
  21. Park HK, Gil BI, Kim JK. Charateristics of taste components of commercial kochujang. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 12: 119-121 (2003)
  22. Kim YH, Proust JJ, Buchholz MJ, Chrest FJ, Nordin AA. Expression of the murine homologue of the cell cycle control protein $p34^{cdc2}$ in T lymphocytes. J. Immunol. 149: 17-23 (1992)
  23. Yasutaka T. Biosynthesis and ultilization of gamma-polyglutamic acid in natto, soybeans fermented by Bacillus subtilis. pp. 3-16. In: 2003 International symposium on Current Status, Trends, and Prospects of Asian Foods. Oct. 10. The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, Research Center for Food Industrial Technology, Mokpo National University, Mokpo, Korea (2003)
  24. Boyer PD. The Enzymes. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA. pp. 1-77, 605-606, 721-796 (1970)
  25. Powrie F, Coffman RL. Cytokine regulation of T-cell function: Potential for therapeutic intervention. Immunol. Today 14: 270-274 (1993) https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5699(93)90044-L