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Antiapoptotic Effect of Aurintricarboxylic Acid; Extracellular Action versus Inhibition of Cytosolic Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

  • Lee, Dong-Yoon ;
  • Kim, Mee-Kyung ;
  • Kim, Mi-Jeong ;
  • Bhattarai, Bharatraj ;
  • Kafle, Bhooshan ;
  • Lee, Keun-Hyeung ;
  • Kang, Jae-Seung ;
  • Cho, Hyeong-Jin
  • Published : 2008.02.20

Abstract

Aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) prevents apoptosis in a wide range of cell types, including PC12 cells. ATA is known to increase the phosphorylation level of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and downstream signaling proteins. ATA can translocate across the plasma membrane of PC12 cells and inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and, therefore, it is not clear whether ATA exerted its antiapoptotic effect through activation of IGF-1R or by inhibition of cytosolic PTPs. When PC12 cells, deprived of serum, were treated with Fab fragment of anti-IGF-1R antibody to prevent the binding of ATA to the extracellular domain of IGF-1R, ATA was found to penetrate into the cytosolic space of the cells. Under these conditions, the survival-promoting effects of ATA were abolished, and the increase of phosphorylation and characteristic cleavage of IGF-1R were not observed. These results indicate that the antiapoptotic effect of ATA in PC12 cells is due to the binding of ATA to the extracellular domain of IGF-1R and subsequent activation of the IGF-1R, not inhibition of cytosolic PTP(s).

Keywords

Apoptosis ; Aurintricarboxylic acid ; PC12 cells ; Protein tyrosine phosphatase ; Inhibitor

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