Significant Parameters for Assessing Soil Contaminant-Leaching to Groundwater and Determining Soil Sample Size in Field Survey

  • Jeong, Seung-Woo (Department of Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University) ;
  • An, Youn-Joo (Department of Environmental Science, Konkuk University)
  • Published : 2008.06.28


For a given soil-contaminated site, a level of soil contamination is characterized and decisions on risk may be made from the risk assessment. The study evaluated critical design factors for the determination of sample size in the sampling design plan and the assessment of soil contaminant- leaching to groundwater. Two variables, the minimum relative detectable difference (T) and coefficient of variation (CV) were evaluated for the sample size determination. The minimum number of samples can be appropriately determined by CV under a T value greater than or equal to 0.2. Soil-contaminant leaching to groundwater was evaluated by using the Soil Screening Level equation of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Risk Based Screening Level equation of American Society for Testing and Materials, with the same input parameters. The groundwater concentrations estimated from soil contaminant concentrations were significantly affected by the Darcy velocity of groundwater and the organic content of soil.


Site characterization;Soil contamination;Risk assessment;Exposure concentration;Groundwater contamination;Exposure pathway


  1. McBean, E. A., and Rovers, F. A., Statistical Procedures for Analysis of Environmental Monitoring Data & Risk Assessment, 1st Ed., Prentice Hall Inc, New Jersey (1998)
  2. Underwood, A. J., and Chapman, M. G., "Power, precaution, Type II error and sampling design in assessment of environmental impacts," Jour. Experi. Marine Biol. Ecol., 296, 49-70 (2003)
  3. Barth, D. S., Mason, B. J., Starks, T. H., and Brown, K. W., Soil Sampling Quality Assurance User's Guide, EPA/ 600/8089/046, USEPA, Nevada (1989)
  4. ASTM, Standard Guide for Risk Based Corrective Action Applied at Petroleum Release Sites E 1739-95, ASTM International, Pennsylvania (2002)
  5. Rikken, M. G., Lijzen, J. P., and Corneles, A. A., Evaluation of Model Concepts on Human Exposure; Proposals for Updating the Most Relevant Exposure Routes of CSOIL, Report Number 711701, RIVM, Netherlands (2001)
  6. USEPA, Guidance for Data Usability in Risk Assessment (Part A), EPA/540/R92/003, Office of Research and Development, Washington DC (1991)
  7. USEPA, Understanding Variation in Partition Coefficient Kd Values Vol II, EPA/402/R99/004B, Office of Air and Radiation, Washington DC (1999)
  8. Earl, N., Macklin, Y., and Abedo, T., CLEA UK Handbook (Draft): Support Document for the CLEA UK Software Beta Version 1.0, Environment Agency, Bristol, UK (2005)
  9. USEPA, Treatment Technologies for Site Cleanup: Annual Status Report (Eleventh Edition), EPA/542/R-3/009, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington DC, (2004)
  10. Vik, E. A., and Bardos, P., Remediation of Contaminated Land Technology Implementation in Europe, Contaminated Land Rehabilitation Network for Environmental Technologies (CLARINET), Austria (2002)
  11. LaGrega, M. D., Buckingham, P. L., Evans, J. C., and Environmental Resources Management, Hazardous Waste Management, 2nd Ed., McGraw Hill Inc, New York (2001)
  12. USEPA, Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, EPA/540/1-89/002, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington DC (1989)
  13. USEPA, Soil Screening Guidance: Technical Background Document, EPA/540/R-95/128, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington DC (1996)
  14. McKone, T. E., and Enoch, K. G., Cal-Tox A Multimedia Total Exposure Model Spreadsheet User's Guide Version 4.0 (Beta), LBNL-47399, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, California (2002)
  15. Wagnera, G., Mohra, U., Sprengarta, J., Desaulesb, A., Muntauc, H., Theocharopoulosd, S., and Quevauvillere, P., "Objectives, concept and design of the CEEM soil project." Sci. Total Environ., 264(1), 3-15 (2001)