Characteristics of Bacterial Community for Biological Activated Carbon(BAC) by Culturable and Unculturable Methods.

배양적 및 비배양적 방법에 의한 생물활성탄 부착세균 군집 특성

  • Park, Hong-Ki (Water Quality Institute, Water Works HQ of Busan Metropolitan City) ;
  • Jung, Eun-Young (Water Quality Institute, Water Works HQ of Busan Metropolitan City) ;
  • Jung, Mi-Eun (Water Quality Institute, Water Works HQ of Busan Metropolitan City) ;
  • Jung, Jong-Moon (Water Quality Institute, Water Works HQ of Busan Metropolitan City) ;
  • Ji, Ki-Won (Water Quality Institute, Water Works HQ of Busan Metropolitan City) ;
  • Yu, Pyung-Jong (Water Quality Institute, Water Works HQ of Busan Metropolitan City)
  • 박홍기 (부산광역시 상수도사업본부 수질연구소) ;
  • 정은영 (부산광역시 상수도사업본부 수질연구소) ;
  • 정미은 (부산광역시 상수도사업본부 수질연구소) ;
  • 정종문 (부산광역시 상수도사업본부 수질연구소) ;
  • 지기원 (부산광역시 상수도사업본부 수질연구소) ;
  • 유평종 (부산광역시 상수도사업본부 수질연구소)
  • Published : 2007.09.30


The Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) process in the water treatments represents a kind of biofiltration process which capabilities of bacteria to remove organic matters are maximized. It enables to eliminate organic matters and effectively reduce microbial regrowth potentials. As attached bacteria employ natural organic matter as a substrate, they are significantly dependent on indigenous microorganisms. In this study, characteristics of bacterial community by culturable and unculturable Methods have been conducted in a pilot plant using SAC in water treatment process at the downstream of the Nakdong River. Based on the results, HPC and bacterial- production for coal-based activated carbon material were $1.20{\sim}56.2{\times}l0^7$ cfu/g and $1.2{\sim}3.7\;mgC/m^{3}h$, respectively, in the SAC process. The highest level of attached bacteria biomass and organic carbon removal efficiency was found in the coal-based activated carbon. The genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Alcaligenes, Acilzetobacter, and Spingomonas were identified for each activated carbon material. Pseudomonas vesicularis was the dominant species in the coconut- and coal-based materials, where as Pseudomonas cepacia was the dominant species in the wood-based material. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation of the activated carbon surface also found the widespread distribution of rod form and coccus. The community of attached bacteria was investigated by performing Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. a group was dominant in coal, wood and coccunt-based materials, ${\alpha},\;{\beta}\;and\;{\gamma}$ group ranged from 27.0 ${\sim}$ 43.0%, 7.1 ${\sim}$ 22.0%, 11.3 ${\sim}$ 28.6%, respectively. These results suggest that a group bacterial community appears to be regulated removal efficiency of organic material in water treatment process.


  1. Aiken, G. R, D. M. McKnight, R L. Wershaw and P. MacCarthy. 1987. Humic Subtances in Soil, Sediment and Water. Wiley-Intersciece, New York
  2. Alfreider, A, J. Pernthhaler, R. Amman, B. Sattler, F. O. Glockner, A. Wille and R. Psenner. 1996. Community analysis of the bacterial assemblages in the winter cover and pelagic layers of a high mountain lake by in situ hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 2138-2144
  3. Amann, R, W. Ludwig and K. H. Schleifer. 1994. Identification of uncultured bacteria: a challenging task for molecular taxonomists, ASM News 60, 360-365
  4. Amann, R, W. Ludwig and K. H. Schleifer. 1995. Phylogenetic and in situ defection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbial. Rev. 59, 143-169
  5. Bach, H., S. Tarre and M. Green. 1998. Post treatment of groundwater denitrification fluidized bed reactor effluents to achieve drinking water quality. J. Industrial Microbiol. & Biotechn. 20, 354-359
  6. Bell, R. T., G. M. Ahlgren and I. Ahlgren. 1983. Estimating bacterioplankton production by the [$^{3}H$]thymidine incorporation in a eutrophic Swedish Lake. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45, 1709-1721
  7. Bouvier, T. and P. A D. Giorgio. 2003. Factors influencing the detection of bacterial cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): a quantitative review of published reports. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 44, 3-15
  8. Falkentoft, C, M., E. Muller, P. Amz, P. Harremoes, H. Mosbak, P. A. Wwlderer and S. Wuertz. 2002. Population changes in a biofilm reactor for phosphorus removal as evidenced by the use of FISH. Water Res. 36, 491-500
  9. Fonseca, A. C., R. S. Summers and M. T. Hernandez. 2001. Comparative measurements of microbial activity in drinking water biofilters. Water Res. 35, 3817-3824
  10. Fuhrman, J. A and F. Azam. 1982. Thymidine incorporation as a measure of heterotrophic bacterio-plankton production in marine surface waters: evaluation and field results. Mar. Biol. 66, 109-120
  11. Glockner, F. O., B. M. Fuchs and R. Amann. 1999. Bacterioplankton compositions of lakes and oceans: a first comparison based on fluorescence in situ hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3721-3726
  12. Kihn, A., A. Andersson, P. Laurent, P. Servais and M. Prevost. 2002. Impact of filtration material on nitrification in biological filters used in drinking water production. J. Wat. Suppl.: Res. & Technol.-Aqua. 51, 35-45
  13. Kogure K., U. Simidu and N. Taga. 1979. A tentative direct microscopic method for counting living marine bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol. 25, 415-420
  14. Krieg, N. R and J. G. Holt. 1984. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Williams & Wilins. Baltimore
  15. Langmark, J., M. V. Storey, N. J. Ashbolt and T. A. Stenstrom. 2004. Artificial grounderwater treatment: biofilm activity and organic carbon removal performance. Water Res. 38, 740-748
  16. Madigan, T. M., J. M. Martinko and J. Parker. 2000. Block Biology of Microorganisms, pp. 453-460, Prentice-Hall, New York
  17. Manz, W., R. Amann, W. Ludwig and M. Wangner. 1992. Phylogentic oligodeoxynucleotide probes for the major subclasses of proteobacteria: problems and solutions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 593-600
  18. Melin, E., B. Eikebrokk, M. Brugger and H, Odegaard. 2002. Treatment of humic surface water at cold temperatures by ozonation and biofiltration, Wat. Sci. Tech.: Wat. Supply 2, 451-457
  19. Park, J., S. Takizawa, H, Katayama and S. Ohgaki. 2002. Biofilter pretreatment for the control of microfiltration membrane fouling. Wat. Sci. Tech.: Wat. Supply 2, 193-199
  20. Park, J. Y. 1994. Drinking Water Microbiology. pp. 385-396, Chemical Engineering Research Corporation. Seoul
  21. Parsons, T. R, Y. Maita and C. M. Lalli. 1984. A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis, Pergamon, New York
  22. Rice, R. G. and C. M. Robson. 1982. Biological Activated Carbon. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida
  23. Rigway, H. F. and B. H. Olsan. 1981. Scanning electron microscope evidence for bacterial colonization of a drinking water distribution system. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41, 274-287
  24. Roh, J. S., H. J. Son, H. K. Park and Y. D. Hwang. 2003. Changes in Characteristics of Biodegradable Organic Matter Removal by Advanced Water Treatment Processes. J. KSEE 25, 909-919
  25. Rou, D. C. 1997. Optimization of Water treatment process by Ozone and Granular Activated Carbon. Theme of Master in National of Bukyeng University
  26. Servais, P., G. Billen, P. Bouillot and M. Benezet. 1992. A pilot study of biological GAC filtration in drinking water treatment. J. Wat. Suppl.: Res. & Technol.-Aqua. 41, 163-168
  27. Son, H, J. and J. S. Roh. 2003. Removal Characteristics of chlorine disinfectant in Activation Process. J. KSEE. 27, 762-770
  28. Staley, J. T. and A. Konopka. 1985. Measurement of in situ activities of nonphotosynthetic microorganisms in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Annu. Rev. microbial. 39, 321-346
  29. Stewart, M. H., R L. Wolfe and E. G. Means. 1990. Assessment of bacteriological activity in carbon treatment of drinking water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 3822-3825
  30. Yu, F. P. and G. A. McFeters. 1994. Rapid in situ assessment of physiological activities in bacterial biofilms using fluorescent probes. J. Microbiol. Methods 20, 1-10
  31. Kim, D. J., S. H. Hong and T. S. Ann. 1999. Seasonal and Vertical Changes of Bacterial Community in Soyangho. The Korean Journal of Microbiology 35, 242-247