A study on the Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Activities of the Citrus Unshju peel Extracts

감귤과피 추출물의 항산화 및 항균 효과에 관한 연구

  • Ahn, Myung-Soo (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women’s University) ;
  • Seo, Mi-Sook (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women’s University) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-Jeung (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sungshin Women’s University)
  • 안명수 (성신여자대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 서미숙 (성신여자대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 김현정 (성신여자대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2007.09.30


Antioxidative and antimicrobial activities were carried out on the Citrus Unshju peel solvent extracts in order to discover new functional activities. The amounts of polyphenol in 70% metanol extract (MtEx) was measured as 836.8 mg% in Citrus Unshju peel. The EDA (electron donating ability) of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.1% MtEx in Citrus Unshju peel were measured as levels of 81.3, 86.0 and 89.6%. The nitrite scavenging effects of Citrus peel were also determined as the levels of 34.4% (pH 1.2) and 19.5% (pH 7.0). The pH of react solution was more acidic, the nitrite scavenging effect was more increased. The order of antioxidatives was shown as TBHQ > BHT > TOC > ChEx > EaEx > EtEx > WaEx > Control in corn germ oil and TBHQ > ChEx > EaEx > BHT > EtEx > WaEx > TOC > Control in canola oil. A number of the extracts were certified to have antimicrobial activities for a small number of micro-organisms, similar gram negative and positive micro-organisms. According to the results above, it was summerized that Citrus Unshju peel had the higher total polyphenol, EDA, nitrite scavenging effects and antimicrobial activities. Also isolated extract from ChEx and EaEx had high antioxidative, these effects were very similar to that of ${alpha}$-tocopherol and BHT. It would be proposed that Citrus peel can become a new natural source for antioxidative agents in future food industry.


Citrus Unshju peel;EDA (electron donating ability);total polyphenol;antioxidative;antimicrobial activity


  1. Baddock RJ. 1983. Utilization of citrus juice vesicle and peel fiber. Food Tech., 12:85-87
  2. Monfote MT, Trovato A, Kirjavanine S, Forestieri AM, Galati EML, Curto RB. 1995. Biological effects of hesperidin a citrus flavonoid hypolipidemic activity on experimental hypercholesterolemia in rat. Farmaco, 50:595-599
  3. Sohn JS, Kim MK. 1998. Effect of hesperidin and naringin on antioxidative capacity in the rat. Korean Nutr. Soc., 31:687-696
  4. Williams BW, Cuvelier ME, Berest C. 1995. Use of tree radical method to evaluate antioxidant. Lebensm-Wiss-U-Technol., 28:25-30 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
  5. Goinstein S, Martin-Belloso O, Park YS, Haruenkit R, Lojek A, Ciz M, Caspi A, Libman I, Trakhtenberg S. 2001. Composition of some biochemical characteristic of different citrus fruit. Food Chem., 74:309-315 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00157-1
  6. Chung SK, Kim SH, Choi YH, Song EY, and Kim SH. 2002. Status of Citrus fruit production and view of utilization in Cheju. Fred Industry and Nutrition, 5:42-52
  7. Lee HY. Seog HM, Nam YJ, Chung DH. 1987. Physico-chemical properties of korean mandarin(Citrus reticula) orange juice Korean J. Food Sci. Technol., 19:338-345
  8. Son HS, Kim HS, Kwon TB, Ju JS. 1992. Isolation, purification and hypotensive effects of biofaronoids in Citrus sinensis. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr., 21:136-142
  9. Isabelle M, Gerard L, Pascale C, Odies S, Nicde P, Pierre B, Pierre C, Tosiame C. 1993. Antioxidant and iron-chelating activities of the flavonoids catechin, quercetin and diosmetin on iron-loaded rat hepatocyte culture. Biochem pharmacol, 45:13-19 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(93)90371-3
  10. Kato H, Lee IE, Chuyen NV, Kim SB, Hayase F. 1987. Inhibition of nitro samine formation by nondialyzable melanoidins. Agric. Biol. Chem., 51:133-138
  11. Miyake T, Yamamoto K, Tsujihara N, Osawa T. 1998. Protective effect of lemon flavonoids on oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Lipids, 32:689- 695
  12. Rousff RL, Martin SF, Youtsey CO. 1987. Quantitative survey of narirutin naringin hesperidin and neohesperidin in citrus. J. Agric. Food Chem., 35:1027-1030 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00078a040
  13. Jeong WS, Park SW, Park SW, Chung SK. 1997. The antioxidative activity of Kerean Citrus Unshiu peels. Food Biotechnol, 6:292-296
  14. Ahn MS, Kim HJ. 1999. A study on the antioxidative and antimicrobial of activites of the Applemint solvents extracts. Sungshin women's university
  15. J. Lining Culture Research, 15:33-51
  16. Kamiya S, Esaki S. 1971. Recent advances in the chemistry of the citrus flavonoids. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi, 18:38-48 https://doi.org/10.3136/nskkk1962.18.38
  17. Ratty AK, Das NP. 1988. Effect of flavonoids on nonenzymic lipid peroxidation structure activity relationship. Biochem. Med. Metabol Biol., 39:69-79 https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-4505(88)90060-6
  18. You JM, Park JB, Seoung KS, Kim DY, Hwang IK. 2005. Antioxidant Activites and anticancer Effects of YUZA. Food Science and Industry, 38(4): 72-77
  19. Guengerich EP, Kim DM. 1990. In vitro inhibition of dihydropyridine oxidation and aflatoxin B1 activation in human liven micro somes by naringenin and other flavonoides. Carcinogenesis II, 2275-2279
  20. A.O.A.C. 1990. Official methods of analysis, 15thed., Association of official analytical chemists Society, Washington D.C
  21. Cha JY, Kim HJ, Kim SG, Lee YJ, Jo YS. 2000. Effects of Citrus Flavonoids on the Lipid peroxidation Contents . Korea J. Post-Harvest Sci. Technol, 7: 211-217
  22. Mouly PPM, Arzouyan CG, Gaydou EM, Estienne JM, 1994. Bifferentiation of citrus juices by factorial discriminant analysis using liquid chromatograph of flavanone glycosides. J. Agric. Food Chem., 42:70-79 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00037a011
  23. Francis AR, Shetty TK, Bhatta Charya RK. 1989. Nodulating effect of plant flavonoids on the mutagenecity of N-methyl-Nnitro-N-nitrosoguanidine carcinogenesis, 10:1953-1955 https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/10.10.1953
  24. Eun JB, Jung YM, Woo GJ. 1996. Identification and Determination of Dietary Fibers and Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Korean Tangerine. KOREAN J. Food Sci. Technol, 28:371-377
  25. A.O.C.S. 1978. Official and tentative methods, Official and 3thed, American oil chemists Society Illinoides
  26. Bok SH, Lee SH, Park YB, Bae KH, Son KH, Jeong TS, Choi MS. 1999. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol and hepatic activities of 3-hydroyy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and acyl CoA: Cholesterol transferase are lower in rat fed Citrus peel extract on a miyture of citrus bioflavonoids. J. Mutr., 129:1182-1185
  27. Henry RJ, and Saini HS. 1987. Characterization of cereal sugars and oligosaccharides. Cereal Chem., 66:362
  28. Lee SJ, Choi SY, Shin JH, Seo JG, Yim HC, Seoung NJ. 2005. The Electron Donating Ability, Nitrite Scavenging Ability and NDMA Formation Effectof Solvent Extracts from Yuza. J. Fd. Hyg. Safety, 20:237-243
  29. Chen YT, Zheng RL, Jia ZL, Ju Y. 1990. Flavonoides as superoxide scavengens and antioxidants. Free Radical Boilmed, 9:19-21
  30. Braddock RJ, Crandall PG. 1981. Carbohydrate fiber from orange albedo. J. Food Sci., 46:650-655 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1981.tb04936.x
  31. Kawaguchi K, Mizuno T, Aida K, Uchino K. 1997. Hesperidin as an inhibitor of lipases from porcine pancreas and pseudomonas. Biosci Biotechnol. Biochen, 61:102-104 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.61.102
  32. Kim YD, Kim YJ, Oh SW, Kong YJ, Lee YC. 1999. Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts from citrus sudachi Juice and peel. KOREAN J. Food Sci. Technol, 31:1613-1618