A Study on Shoes(靴) Shown in Buddist Paintings in the Late Joseon Dynasty

조선후기 불화에 나타난 화(靴)에 관한 연구

  • 박혜령 (한서대학교 의상디자인학과) ;
  • 조신현 (경희대학교 의상학과)
  • Received : 2006.08.21
  • Published : 2007.04.30

Abstract

Buddhist paintings in the late Joseon dynasty are characterized by diversification and subdivision of subject matters. Buddhist paintings rapidly declined since 19th century, being miniaturized and showing complicated composition. Figures that identified the shape of shoes in Buddhist paintings of late Joseon dynasty included sacheonwang that were placed in the left and right bottom of Buddhist paintings, sinjung, gwiwang and pan-gwan of siwangtaeng. Sacheonwang, an Indian folk god, was depicted as a noble person in "ahamgyeong", an early sutra, but was depicted as an armored warrior in Mahayana Buddhism world. The style of shoes sacheonwang in Korea were different depending on the times. The shoes of the sacheonwang sculpture in Seogguram of Shilla dynasty are sandal type. The sacheonwang that was drawn on Jijangbosaldo in Goryeo dynasty wears non-showy armor and red yi(履). The sacheonwang that was expressed on Buddhist paintings in Joseon dynasty wears showy armor and decorated hwa. Comparing the yi of Goryeo Jijangbosaldo sacheonwang with the yi of Bodhisattva on the Dunhuang yeolbanbyeonsangdo, Jijangbosaldo sacheonwang's shoes are Korean style in which the sole is flat and the front part has no decoration, but in the shoes of Bodhisattva on the Dunhuang yeolbanbyeonsangdo the sole is not flat, the front part is lifted. The style of shoes of pan-gwan, who is depicted on Siwangtaeng, is hwa. However, unlike the decorative hwa of sacheonwang, its front is not lifted and it has no decoration. It is assumed that the shoes of sacheonwang or pan-gwan represented obangsaek based on the idea of eumyang-ohaeng. Depiction of shoes shown in Buddhist paintings reflected the phases of the social life. In addition, the sandals of Shilla sacheonwang implies that sourthern culture in addition to Buddhism was introduced. Having expressed the shoes of Goryeo sacheonwang with conventional yi implies that Buddhism governed the inner world of the people, and the shape and material of the shoes reveals aristocracy. It is assumed that that an armored warrior wore yi, not hwa implies that the then society was stable. Also, it is assumed that that the shoes of sacheonwang on Buddhist paintings in Joseon dynasty were hwa implies that the role of tutelary god was stressed in the disordered society.

Keywords

Buddhist paintings;hwa(靴);sinjungtaeng;obangsaek;sacheonwang

References

  1. 김영희 (2001) 한국 신중탱화의 도상학적 연구. 동국대학교 대학원 석사학위논문
  2. 양숙향 . 이태호 . 이경화 (2003) 조선시대 감로탱화 풍속장면의 복식 연구. 한국의류산업학회지, 5(5), 481-494
  3. 은영자 . 김장향 (1998) '望月信亨: 月佛敎大辭全 2'. 世界聖典刊 行協會, 東京, p.1735
  4. 임영주 (2004) '한국의 전통문양'. 대원사, 서울
  5. 하용득 (2001) '한국의 전통색과 색채심리'. 명지출판사, 서울, pp.46-47
  6. 허균 (2000) '사찰장식 그 빛나는 상징의 세계'. 돌베개, 서울
  7. 홍윤식 (1989) '불화'. 대원사, 서울, p.7
  8. 배만실 (1986) '한국전통색채론'. 이대논총, 서울, p.264
  9. 한림과학원총서 (1992) '한국미술사의 현황, 고려. 조선시대의 불화'. 예경, 서울
  10. 임명미 (1994) 고려시대 인물관련 제작물을 통해서 본 복식에 관한연구(2)-고려시대 인물관련 제작 불화 중 탱화를 통해서 본 복식에 관한연구 (2)-1-남녀 왕실 귀족 및 관직자 복식을 주로하여-. 복식, 22, 205-224
  11. 성보문화재연구원 (1996) 한국의 불화 1 통도사 본말사 편(상)
  12. 성보문회재연구원 (1996) 한국의 불화 8 직지사 본말사 편(상)
  13. 양경애 (1992) 조선시대 감로탱화에 표현된 복식의 유형분석과 상징성 연구. 숙명여자대학교 대학원 석사학위논문
  14. 동국미술인회 (2005) '사찰에서 만나는 불교미술'. 대한불교진흥원, 서울, p.157, pp.32-50
  15. 유마리 (2004) '불교회화'. 솔, 서울
  16. 허균 (1995) '전통문양'. 대원사, 서울, p.90
  17. 이경숙 (2002) 19세기 불화에 나타난 연꽃의 상징과 표현. 한국기초조형학회지, 3(2), 249-259
  18. 박선희 (2002) '한국고대복식-그 원형과 정체'. 지식산업사, 서울, pp.507-545
  19. 은영자 . 김장향 (1998) 陰陽五行의 틀로 해석한 袈裟色의 상정적 의미. 복식, 40, 25-35
  20. 장충식 (2004) '한국불교미술연구'. 시공사, 서울, ㅂp.175
  21. 정병삼 (2001) '그림으로 보는 불교이야기'. 도서출판 풀빛, 서울