Numerical Simulation for Evaluation the Feasibility of Using Sand and Gravel Contaminated by Heavy Metals for Dam Embankment Materials

중금속으로 오염된 사력재의 댐축조 재료 활용 가능성 평가를 위한 수치 모델링

  • 석희준 (한국수자원공사 수자원연구원) ;
  • 서민우 (한국수자원공사 수자원연구원) ;
  • 김형수 (한국수자원공사 수자원연구원) ;
  • 이정민 (한국수자원공사 수자원환경처)
  • Published : 2007.04.28


Numerical analysis was performed to investigate the effect of heavy metal contamination on neighboring environment in case a dam is constructed by using rockfill materials contaminated by heavy metals. The numerical simulation carried out in this research includes both subsurface flow and contaminant transport in the inside of the CFRD(Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam), using two commercial programs, SEEP2D and FEMWATER. The three representative cases of scenarios were chosen to consider a variety of cases occurring in a dam site; (1) Scenario 1 : no crack in the concrete face slab, (2) Scenario 2 : a crack In the upper part of face slab, and (3) Scenario 3 : a crack between plinth and face slab in the lower part of face slab. As a result of seepage analysis, the amount of seepage in scenario 2 was calculated as $14.31\sim14.924m^3/day$ per unit width, corresponding to the 1,000 times higher value than that in other scenarios. Also, in the simulation of contaminant transport by using FEMWATER, specified contaminant concentration of 13 ppb in main rockfill zone was set to consider continuous leakage from the rock materials. Through the analysis of contaminant transport, we found that elapsed times to take for the contaminant concentration of about 2 ppb to arrive at the end of a dam are as follows. Scenario 1 has the elapsed time of 55,000 years. In Scenario 2. it is 50 years. Finally, scenario 3 has 27,000 years. The rapid transport of the contaminant in scenario 2 was attributed to greater seepage flow by 500 times than other scenarios. Although, in case of upper crack in the face slab, it was identified that the contaminant might transport to the end of a dam within 100 years with about 2 ppb concentration, however, it happened that the contaminant was hardly transported out of the dam in other scenarios, which correspond to either no crack or a crack between plinth and face slab. In conclusion, the numerical analysis showed that the alternative usage of the contaminated sand and gravel as the dam embankment material can be one of the feasible methods with the assumption that the cracks in a face slab could be controlled adequately.


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