Global Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Multimedia Environmental Modelling and Model Improvement

잔류성 유기오염물질의 전 지구적 거동: 다매체 환경모델의 결과해석 및 개선방안

  • Published : 2007.02.28

Abstract

Global fates of polychlorinated biphenyl(PCB) were investigated with a fugacity based multimedia transport and fate model, Globe-POP(persistent organic pollutant). The accumulation of PCB was directly affected by the emission patterns of PCB into the atmosphere and surface areas of environmental compartments. Partition coefficients and reaction rates also influenced on the accumulation patterns of PCB. The emission patterns of PCB in 10 climate zones were consistent for the past 70 years, while the contribution of PCB in high-latitude zones to the globe has increased by cold condensation. Considering the amounts of emission and accumulation of PCB, the North temperature zone is regarded as an important source and sink of PCB. Meanwhile, in spite of no significant sources, POPs accumulate in Antarctic environments mainly due to extremely low temperature. Finally we suggested that a global water balance accounting for snow/ice should be incorporated into multimedia environmental models for high-latitude zones and polar regions with the seasonal snow pack and/or permanent ice caps. The modified model will be useful to evaluate the influence of climate change on the fate of POPs.

Keywords

Persistent Organic Pollutant;Multimedia Environmental Model;PCB;Globe-POP

References

  1. Breivik, K., A. Sweetman, J.M. Pacyna and K.C. Jones, 2002. Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners - A mass balance approach. 1. Global production and consumption. Sci. Total. Environ., 290: 181-198 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(01)01075-0
  2. Fuoco, R., M. P. Colombini, A. Ceccarini and C. Abete, 1996. Polychlorobiphenyls in Antarctica. Microchem. J., 54: 384-390 https://doi.org/10.1006/mchj.1996.0115
  3. Gouin, T., T. Harner, G.L. Daly, F. Wania, D. Mackay and K.C. Jones, 2005. Variability of concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in air: implications for monitoring, modeling and control. Atmos. Environ., 39: 151-166 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.09.022
  4. Malanichev, A., E. Mantseva, V. Shatalov, B. Strukov and N. Vulykh, 2004. Numerical evaluation of the PCBs transport over the Northem Hemisphere. Environ. Pollut., 128: 279-289 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2003.08.040
  5. Su, Y. and F. Wania, 2005. Does the forest filter effect prevent semivolatile organic compounds from reaching the Arctic?. Environ. Sci. Technol., 39: 7185-7193 https://doi.org/10.1021/es0481979
  6. Wania, F. and D. Mackay, 1993. Global fractionation and cold condensation of low volatility organochlorine compounds in polar regions. Ambio, 22: 10-18
  7. Wania, F. and D. Mackay, 1996. Tracking the distribution of persistent organic pollutants. Environ. Sci. Technol., 30: 390A-396A https://doi.org/10.1021/es962399q
  8. Mackay D., 2001. Multimedia environmental models, 2nd ed., Lewis publishers, Boca Raton, Florida
  9. Stocker, J, F. Wegmann, M. Scheringer and K. Hungerbuhler, 2005. Influence of snow and ice on the distribution of POPs in a global multi-media model. Organohalogen Compounds, 67: 1809-1811
  10. 신용승, 이동수, 구현정, 2004. 오염매체 통합관리를 위한 유해화학물질의 다매체 환경기준 설정에 관한 연구, 한국환경정책 평가연구원, KEI RE-06
  11. Wania, F. and D. Mackay, 1995. A global distribution model for persistent organic chemicals. Sci. Total. Environ., 160/161: 211-232 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(95)04358-8
  12. 최성득, 장윤석, 2005. Passive Air Sampler를 이용한 잔류성 유기오염물질의 대기 모니터링. 한국대기환경학회지, 21: 481-494
  13. Daly, G. L. and F. Wania, 2004. Simulating the influence of snow on the fate of organic compounds. Environ. Sci. Technol., 38: 4176-4186 https://doi.org/10.1021/es035105r
  14. Wania, F. and D. Mackay, 2000. The global distribution model. A nonsteady state multi-compartmental mass balance model of the fate of persistent organic pollutants in the global environment, Technical Report and Computer Program, http://www.utsc.utoronto.ca/-wania
  15. Wania, F. and D. Mackay, 1999. Global chemical fate of ${\alpha}$-hexachlorocyclohexane. 2. Use of a global distribution model for mass balancing, source apportionment, and trend predictions. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 18: 1400-1407 https://doi.org/10.1897/1551-5028(1999)018<1400:GCFOHU>2.3.CO;2
  16. Wania, F. and Y. Su, 2004. Quantifying the global fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls. Ambio, 33: 161-168 https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-33.3.161
  17. Breivik, K., A. Sweetman, J.M. Pacyna and K.C. Jones, 2002. Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners - A mass balance approach. 2. Emissions. Sci. Total. Environ., 290: 199-224 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(01)01076-2
  18. Sweet, S.T., J.L. Sericano, G Denoux, A.G Klein, M.C. Kennicutt and T.L. Wade, 2006. Spatial and temporal variability of contamination in the marine environment at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. In: Proceedings of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27th Annual Meeting in North America, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, pp. 143
  19. Scheringer, M., F. Wegmann, K. Fenner and K. Hungerbuhler, 2000. Investigation of the cold condensation of persistent organic pollutants with a global multimedia fate model. Environ. Sci. Technol., 34: 1842-1850 https://doi.org/10.1021/es991085a
  20. Halsall, C.J., 2004. Investigating the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the arctic: their atmospheric behaviour and interaction with the seasonal snow pack. Environ. Pollut., 128: 163-175 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2003.08.026
  21. Wania, F., K. Breivik, N.J. Persson and M.S. McLachlan, 2006. CoZMo-POP 2 - A fugacity-based dynamic multi-compartmental mass balance model of the fate of persistent organic pollutants. Environ. Modell. Softw., 21: 868-884 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2005.04.003
  22. Oh, J. R., M.G. Ikonomou, M.P. Fernandez and S.-H. Hong, 2003. PCB and PCDD/F Totals, TEQs, and Congener Patterns in Korean Coastal Marine Environments, 1987, 1988, 1990, and 1996-1999. Arch. Environ. Con. Tox., 44: 224-236 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-002-2026-1
  23. Koh, C.-H., J.S. Khim, K. Kannan, D.L. Villeneuve, K. Senthilkumar and J.P. Giesy, 2004. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (TEQs) in sediment from the Hyeongsan River, Korea. Environ. Pollut., 132: 489-501 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2004.05.001
  24. Wania, F., D. Mackay, Y.-F. Li, T.F. Bidleman and A. Strand, 1999. Global chemical fate of${\alpha}$-hexachlorocyclohexane. 1. Evaluation of a global distribution model. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 7: 1390-1399
  25. Wania, F., 2003. Assessing the potential of persistent organic chemicals for long-range transport and accumulation in polar regions. Environ. Sci. Technol., 37: 1344-1351 https://doi.org/10.1021/es026019e