Islanding Detection for Distributed Generation

  • Published : 2007.03.01


The paper discussed various techniques for islanding detection and described in detail the working principles of ROCOF and vector shift relays. A simulator was used to investigate why the stability of both types of relays maybe affected by network and load switching, short-circuit faults and in the case of a ROCOF relay the loss of bulk generation or the tripping of a transmission feeder. Finally, to enhance the reliability of Loss of Mains protection, a new islanding detection technique based on a GPS synchronized phasor measurement system was proposed.


  1. Jenkings, N.; Allan, R.; Crossley, P.; Kirschen, D.; and Strbac, G., ' Embedded Generation ' IEE Power and Energy Series 31, IEE 2000
  2. Econnect Ltd 'Islanded Operation of Distribution Network', DG/CG/00026/00/00 DTI/pub URN 05/591 2005
  3. UK Electricity Association 1991, 'Engineering recommendation G.59/1: Recommendations for the connection of Embedded Generating Plant to the regional electricity companies' Distribution System
  4. O'Kane,P. and Fox,B., ' Loss of mains detection for embedded generation by system impedance monitoring'. IEE 6th International conference on Developments in Power System Protection, pp 95-98, March 1997
  5. Salman, S.K.; King, D.J.; 'Monitoring changes in system variables due to islanding condition and those due to disturbances at the utilities' network', IEEE Transmission and Distribution Conference, April 1999 Vol. 2. pp460 – 465
  6. COOPER, C.B., 'Standby generation problems and prospective gains from parallel running', International power system protection conference, Singapore,1989
  7. Usta, O.; Redfern, M.A.; Barrett, J.I.; 'Protection of dispersed storage and generation units against islanding', Proceedings. of 7th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, April 1994 pp976 – 979
  8. Redfern, M.A.; Barrett, J.I.; Usta, O., 'A new loss of grid protection based on power measurements', Sixth Int. Conf. On Developments in Power System Protection, 1997, pp.91-94
  9. Redfern, M.A., USTA., O., Fielding, G., and Walker,E.P., 'Power based algorithm to provide loss of grid protection for embedded generation', IEE Proc., Gener.Trans.Distrib.,1994, vol. 141, (6),pp.640-646
  10. Salman, S.K., King, D.J., and Weller, G.:'New loss of mains detection algorithm for embedded generation using rate of chane of voltage and changes in power factorss' Seventh IEE Int. Conf. On Developments in Power System Protection, 2001, pp.82-85
  11. Salman, S.K.; 'Detection of embedded generator islanding condition using elliptical trajectory technique', Sixth International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection, March 1997 Page(s):103–106
  12. Pai, F., and Huang, S.: 'A detection algorithm of islanding prevention of dispersed consumer-owned storage and generating units', IEEE Tran., Energy Convers, 2001, 16, (4), pp. 346-351
  13. Jang, S. and Kim, K.: 'An islanding detection method for distributed generations using voltage unbalance and total harmonic distortion of current', IEEE trans. on Power Delivery, 2004, vol. 19, (2), pp. 745-752 LOM-[14]
  14. Warin, J.W., 'Loss of Mains Protections', ERA Conference on Circuit Protection for Industrial and Commercial Installations,London,1990
  15. Ye, Z., et. al; 'Evaluation of anti-islanding schemes based on nondetection zone concept' IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 19, Issue 5, Sept. 2004 pp1171 – 1176
  16. Kim, J.E.; Hwang, J.S.; 'Islanding detection method of distributed generation units connected to power distribution system' International Conference on Power System Technology, 2000. vol. 2
  17. Xu, W., Mauch, K., “An Assessment of Distributed Generation Islanding Detection Mehtods and Issues for Canada”, CETC-Varennes 2004-074 (TR) 411- INVERT, July, 2004
  18. Engineering Technical Report (ETR) 113, notes of guidance for protection of embedded generating plant up to 5MW for operation in parallel with public electricity suppliers' distribution systems, 1995 Electricity association
  19. Mozina, C.J., 'Interconnection protection of IPP generators at commercial/industrial facilities', IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 37, No. 3, May/June 2001, pp. 681-688
  20. Econnect Ltd 'Assessment of Islanded Operation of Distribution Networks and Measures for Protection', ETSU K/EL/00235/REP DTI/pub URN 01/1119 2001
  21. CRAIG,L., and JENKINS,N.: “Islanding and self excitation of wind turbines”. European Wind Energy Association Special Topic conference on Integration of wind power plants in the environment and electric systems, Rome, Italy,1996
  22. Beddoes, A., Thomas, P. and Gosden, M., 'Loss of mains protection relay performances when subjected to network disturbances/event', 18th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Turin, June 2005
  23. IEEE Power system relaying committee of the power engineering society. 2003. C37,118. IEEE Standard for Synchrophasors for Power System

Cited by

  1. Islanding Protection and Islanding Detection in Low Voltage CIGRE Distribution Network with Distributed Generations vol.05, pp.06, 2014,
  2. Anti-islanding protection of distributed generators with regard to sensitivity in a balance and power system stability vol.2017, pp.1, 2017,
  3. An improved second-order sliding mode control for the distributed generation system in stand-alone and grid-connected modes vol.27, pp.11, 2017,
  4. Application of Extension Theory with Chaotic Signal Synchronization on Detecting Islanding Effect of Photovoltaic Power System vol.2015, 2015,
  5. Wide-Area Phase-Angle Measurements for Islanding Detection—An Adaptive Nonlinear Approach vol.31, pp.4, 2016,
  6. Advanced Islanding Detection Functionality for Future Electricity Distribution Networks vol.28, pp.4, 2013,
  7. Combining two techniques to develop a novel islanding detection method for distributed generation units vol.81, 2016,
  8. Controlled Operation of the Islanded Portion of the International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE) Low Voltage Distribution Network vol.10, pp.7, 2017,
  9. A New Passive Islanding Detection Solution Based on Accumulated Phase Angle Drift vol.8, pp.8, 2018,
  10. Electric power system inertia: requirements, challenges and solutions pp.1432-0487, 2018,