Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor${\gamma}$ Is Involved in Weaning to Estrus of Primiparous Sows by Regulating the Expression of Hormone Genes in Hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary Axis

  • Kong, L.J. (College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Wang, A.G. (College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Fu, J.L. (College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Lai, CH.H. (College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Wang, X.F. (College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Lin, H.CH. (College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2006.02.20
  • Accepted : 2006.04.05
  • Published : 2007.03.01


The objective of this study was to determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$(PPAR${\gamma}$ is involved in the regulation of weaning to estrus of primiparous sows. Twelve sows composed of 6 groups of 2 full-sibs in a similar age (325.2 d), body weight (BW; 152.4 kg) and backfat thickness (BFT; 27.0 mm) at start of lactation, were allocated to accept 31 MJ (restricted group, R-group) or 53 MJ (control group, C-group) DE/d treatment, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the low energy intake resulted in excessive losses of BW and BFT during lactation in R-group sows, which may be related to decrease of serum 15-deoxy-${\Delta}^{12,14}$-prostaglandin $J_2$ (15d-$PGJ_2$), a ligand of PPAR${\gamma}$ The obvious peak and the frequency of LH, FSH and estradiol ($E_2$) were only observed in C-group sows. Except for $E_2$ at d 1 and 2, serum FSH, LH and $E_2$ concentrations in R-group were lower than those in C-group sows after weaning. However, the serum progesterone ($P_4$) level in R-group sows was always more than that in C-group. The expression abundances of PPAR${\gamma}$and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) in pituitary, FSH receptor (FSH-R), LH receptor (LH-R), estrogen receptor (ES-R) and aromatase in ovary of anestrous sows were lower than those of estrous sows. Neither the BFT nor the BW was associated with the mRNA abundance of PPAR${\gamma}$in hypothalamus during lactation. Expressions of PPAR${\gamma}$in pituitary and ovary were affected evidently by the BFT changes and only by the loss of BW of sows during and after lactation. Furthermore, PPAR${\gamma}$mRNA level in ovary was significantly related to the expression abundances of GnRH-R, FSH-R, ES-R and aromatase, and GnRH-R was obviously associated with PPAR${\gamma}$expression in pituitary. However, PPAR${\gamma}$expression in hypothalamus likely has no effects on these genes expression and no obvious difference for all sows. Not serum $E_2$ or $P_4$ alone but the ratios of $E_2$ to $P_4$ and 15d-$PGJ_2$ to $P_4$, and serum FSH and LH were evidently related to PPAR${\gamma}$expression in pituitary and ovary. It is concluded that PPAR${\gamma}$is associated with body conditions, reproduction hormones and their receptor expression, which affected the functions of pituitary and ovary and ultimately the estrus after weaning of primiparous sows.


  1. Bilkei, G. 1995. Herd health strategy for improving the reproductive performance of pigs. J. Hung. Vet. 10:766-768.
  2. Ellison, P. T. 1990. Human ovarian function and reproductive ecology. Am. Anthropol. 2:933-952.
  3. Froment, P., S. Fabre, J. Dupont, C. Pisslet, D. Chesneau, B. Staels and P. Monget. 2003. Expression and functional role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ in ovarian folliculogenesis in the sheep. Biol. Reprod. 69:1665-1674.
  4. Guan, Y., Y. Zhang, L. Davis and M. D. Breyer. 1997. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in urinary tract of rabbits and humans. Am. J. Physiol. Renal. Physiol. 273:F1013-F1022.
  5. Keller, H., W. Wahli and M. Perroud. 1995. Signaling cross-talk between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/retinoid X receptor and estrogen receptor through estrogen response elements. Mol. Endocrinol. 9:794-804.
  6. Komar, C. M., O. Braissant, W. Wahli and T. E. Curry Jr. 2001. Expression and localization of PPARs in the rat ovary during follicular development and the periovulatory period. Endocrinol. 142:4831-4838.
  7. Lohrke, B., T. Viergutz, S. K. Shahi, R. Pohland, K. Wollenhaupt, T. Goldammer, H. Walzel and W. Kanitz. 1998. Detection and functional characterisation of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ in lutein cells. J. Endocrinol. 159:429-439.
  8. Meredith, M. J. 1984. Anoestrus in the pig. Pig News Info. 5:213.
  9. SPSS Inc. 1999. SPSS Base 10.0 for Windows User's Guide. SPSS Inc. Chicago IL.
  10. Tontonoz, P., E. Hu and B. M. Spiegelman. 1994. Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPAR gamma 2, a lipidactivated transcription factor. Cell 79:1147-1156.
  11. Wise, M. E., D. Nieman, J. Stewart and T. M. Nett. 1984. Effect of number of receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the release of luteinizing hormone. Biol. Reprod. 31:1007-1013.
  12. Xiong Yuanzhu, Li Fenge, Lei Minggang, Zheng Rong, Zuo Bo, Jiang Siwen and Deng Changyan. 2004a. The effects of estrogen receptor locus on reproductive tracts components and performance traits in large white meishan $F_2$ offspring. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1223-1226.
  13. Ziecik, A. J., K. L. Esbenshade and J. H. Britt. 1989. Effects of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist on gonadotrophin secretion and gonadal development in neonatal pigs. J. Reprod. Fertil. 87:281-289.
  14. Wright, P. J. and J. Malmo. 1992. Pharmacologic manipulation of fertility. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 8:57-89.
  15. Boyd, R. D., K. J. Touchette, G. C. Castro, M. E. Johnston, K. U. Lee and In K. Han. 2000. Recent Advances in Amino Acid and Energy Nutrition of Prolific Sows - Review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1638-1652.
  16. Strowitzki, T., B. Halser and T. Demant. 2002. Body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, ovarian dysfunction and serum lipoproteins in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecol. Endocrinol. 16:45-51.
  17. Xiong Yuanzhu, Zhang Shujun, Den Changyan, Xiao Senmu, Xu Jianxiang, Xia Yu, Liu Xiaohua, Wang Chunfang and Sun Shulin. 2004b. FSHR gene mutation and its effect on litter size in pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:179-182
  18. MLC. 1995. Pig Year Book 1995. Meat and Livestock Commission, Milton Keynes, p. 149
  19. Nett, T. M., A. M. Turzillo, M. Baratta and L. A.Rispoli. 2002. Pituitary effects of steroid hormones on secretion of folliclestimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Dom. Anim. Endocrinol. 23:33-42.
  20. Gregg, D. W., R. H. Schwall and T. M. Nett. 1991. Regulation of gonadotropin secretion and number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors by inhibin, activin-A and estradiol. Biol. Reprod. 44:725-732.
  21. Gourdine, J. L., H. Quesnel, J-P. Bidanel and D. Renaudeau. 2006. Effect of season, parity and lactation on reproductive performance of sows in a tropical humid climate. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1111-1116.
  22. Capparuccia, L., D. Marzioni, A. Giordano, F. Fazioli, M. De Nictolis, N. Busso, T. Todros and M. Castellucci. 2002. $PPAR{\gamma}$ expression in normal human placenta, hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 8:574-579.
  23. Caroll, C. M., P. B. Lynch, M. P. Boland, L. J. Spicer, F. H. Austin, N. Leonard, W. J. Enright and J. F. Roche. 1996. The effects of feed intake during lactation and postweaning on the reproductive performance and hormone and metabolite concentrations of primiparous sows. Anim. Sci. 63:297-306.
  24. Lambe, K. G. and J. D. Tugwood. 1996. A human peroxisomeproliferator- activated $receptor-{\gamma}$ is activated by inducers of adipogenesis, including thiazolidinedione drugs. Eur. J. Biochem. 239:1-7.
  25. Desvergne, B. and W. Wahli. 1999. Peroxisome Proliferator- Activated Receptors: Nuclear Control of Metabolism. Endocr. Rev. 20:649-688.
  26. Asami-Miyagishi, R., S. Iseki, M. Usui, K. Uchida, H. Kubo and I. Morita. 2004. Expression and function of $PPAR{\gamma}$ in rat placental development. Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 315:497-501.
  27. Kliewer, S. A., J. M. Lenhard, T. M. Willson, I. Patel, D. C. Morris and J. M. Lehmann. 1995. A prostaglandin $J_2$ metabolite binds peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and promotes adipocyte differentiation. Cell 83:813-819.
  28. Quesnel, H., A. Pasquier, A. M. Mounier and A. Prunier. 1998. Influence of feed restriction during lactation on gonadotropic hormones and ovarian development in primiparous sows. J. Anim. Sci. 76:856-863.
  29. Thaker, M. Y. C. and G. Bilkei. 2005. Lactation weight loss influences subsequent reproductive performance of sows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 88:309-318.
  30. Mullan, B. P. and I. H. Williams. 1989. The effect of body reserves at farrowing on the reproductive perfornance of first-litter sows. Anim. Prod. 48: 449-457.
  31. Prunier, A. and H. Quesnel. 2000. Nutritional influences on the hormonal control of reproduction in females pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 63:1-16.
  32. Almond, G. W. and G. D. Dial. 1990. Estradiol feedback inhibition of luteinizing hormone concentrations in the anestrous sow. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1077-1086.
  33. National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th Ed. National Academic Press, Washington, DC.
  34. Schoppe, P. D., J. C. Garmey and J. D. Veldhuis. 2002. Putative activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ impairs androgen and enhances progesterone biosynthesis in primary cultures of porcine theca cells. Biol. Reprod. 66:190-198.
  35. Issemann, I. and S. Green. 1990. Activation of a member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily by peroxisome proliferators. Nature 347:645-650.
  36. Rozeboom, D. W., R. L. Moser, S. G. Cornelius, J. E. Pettigrew and S. M. EI Kandelgy. 1993. Body composition of postpubertal gilts at nutritionally induced anestrus. J. Anim. Sci. 71:426-435.
  37. Houseknecht, K. L., B. M. Cole and P. J. Steele. 2002. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) and its ligands: A review. Domest. Anim. Endocrin. 22:1-23.
  38. van den Brand, H., S. J. Dieleman, N. M. Soede and B. Kemp. 2000. Dietary energy source at two feeding levels during lactation of primiparous sows: I. Effects on glucose, insulin, and luteinizing hormone and on follicle development, weaning-to-estrus interval, and ovulation rate. J. Anim. Sci. 78:396-404.
  39. Cheng, C. S., H. T. Yen, S. W. Roan, J. F. Wu and J. C. Hsu. 2001. Effect of Dietary Protein and Lysine Levels on Lactating Multiparous Sows and Litter Performance. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:77-81.
  40. Chung, W. B., W. F. Cheng, L. S. Wu and P. C. Yang. 2002. The use of plasma progesterone profiles to predict the reproductive status of anestrous gilts and sows. Theriogenol. 58:1165-1174.
  41. Cui, Y., K. Miyoshi, E. Claudio, U. K. Siebenlist, F. J. Gonzalez, J. Flaws, K. U. Wagner and L. Hennighausen. 2002. Loss of the peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) does not affect mammary development and propensity for tumor formation but leads to reduced fertility. J. Biol. Chem. 277:17830-17835.

Cited by

  1. Effect of polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene on litter size of pigs vol.38, pp.3, 2011,
  2. Evaluation of high nutrient diets on litter performance of heat-stressed lactating sows vol.30, pp.11, 2017,