Evaluation of Sodium Alignate as a Fat Replacer on Processing and Shelf-life of Low-fat Ground Pork Patties

  • Kumar, Manish (Department of Livestock Products Technology, Punjab Agricultural University) ;
  • Sharma, B.D. (Division of Livestock Products Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute- Izatnagar) ;
  • Kumar, R.R. (Department of Livestock Products Technology, SKAUSTJammu)
  • Received : 2005.09.29
  • Accepted : 2006.01.03
  • Published : 2007.04.01


Low-fat ground pork patties, LFGPP (<10% total fat) formulated with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 percent sodium alginate (SA) were processed and compositional, processing and sensory characteristics were compared with control patties containing 20% fat. The moisture content of raw and cooked LFGPP were significantly (p<0.05) higher than control patties because of greater amount of added water in the formulation. The cooking yield, moisture and fat retention also increased linearly in different treatments of LFGPP. The dimensional parameters such as gain in height, decrease in diameter and shrinkage were significantly (p<0.05) lower in LFGPP in comparison to control. Amongst the sensory attributes, flavour showed a declining trend with the increase in concentration of SA in LFGPP. However, low-fat patties with 0.1% SA rated similar to high-fat control. The lipid profile revealed 49.78 and 43.22% decrease in total lipids and cholesterol content respectively, compared to control. The calorie content was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in LFGPP. The texture profile of LFGPP with 0.1% SA was similar to that of high-fat control. The LFGPP remained stable without any appreciable loss of physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic quality during refrigerated storage ($4{{\pm}}1^{\circ}C$) for 21 and 35 days in aerobic and vacuum packaging respectively.


  1. Ahmed, P. O., M. F. Miller, C. E. Lyon, H. M. Vaughters and J. O. Reagan. 1990. Physical and sensory characteristics of low-fat fresh pork sausages processed with various levels of added water. J. Food Sci. 55(3):625-628.
  2. Akoh, C. C. 1998. Fat replacers. Food Technol. 52(3):47-53
  3. AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
  4. Berry, B. W. and M. N. Liu. 1996. Effect of sodium alginate with modified tapioca starch, cooking method and end point temperature on properties of low-fat beef patties. IFT Annual meeting: Book of Abstracts p.165 ISSN 1082-1236
  5. Bloukas, J. G., E. D. Paneras and S. Papadima. 1997. Effect of carrageenan on processing and quality characteristics of lowfat frankfurters. J. Muscle Foods. 8(1):68-78.
  6. Brady, P. L., F. K. Mckeith and M. E. Hunence. 1985. Comparison of sensory and instrumental texture profile techniques for the evaluation of beef and beef-soy loaves. J. Food Sci. 50:15-37.
  7. Bullock, K. B., D. L. Huffman, W. B. Egbert, W. B. Mikel, D. D. Bradford and W. R. Jones. 1994. Storage stability of low-fat ground beef made with lower value cuts of beef. J. Food Sci. 59(1):6-9.
  8. Chowdhary, J., S. Kumar and R. C. Keshri. 1994. Physicochemical and organoleptic quality of chicken patties incorporating texturized soy proteins. Indian J. Poult. Sci. 29:204-206.
  9. El- Ebzary, M. M., A. A. Askar, M. S. El-Dashlouty and M. M. A. El-Baki. 1981. Evaluation of alginate coatings for frozen stored buffalo meat cut. Gordian, 81(12):287-292.
  10. El-Magoli, S. B., S. Laroria and P. M. T. Hansen. 1996. Flavor and texture characteristics of low-fat ground beef patties formulated with whey protein concentrate. Meat Sci. 42(2):179-193.
  11. Giese, J. 1992. Developing low-fat meat products. Food Technol. 46(4):100-108.
  12. Hanel, H. K. and H. Dam. 1955. Determination of small amount of total cholesterol by Tschugaeff reaction with a note on the determination of lanosterol. Acta Chemical Scandinivian. 9: 677-682.
  13. Haque, N. and MurariLal. 1999. Gross energy estimation. In : Laboratory Manual of Animal Nutrition (Ed. V. R. B. Sastry, D. N. Kamra and N. N. Publ Pathak). Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly India, p. 71.
  14. Hughes, L., D. A. Leadward, J. R. Mitchell and C. Summerlin. 1980. The effect of some meat proteins on the rheological properties of pectate and alginate gels. J. Texture Studies, 11(3):247-256.
  15. Hwang, J. K., S. I. Hong, C. T. Kim, M. J. Choi and Y. I. Kim. 1998. Quality changes of meat patties by the addition of sea mustard paste. J. Kor. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 27(3):477-479.
  16. Keeton, J. T. 1994. Low-fat meat products-Technological problems with processing. Meat Sci. 36:261-276.
  17. Koniecko, E. K. 1979. In: Handbook for Meat Chemists. Chap. 6, Avery Publishing Group Inc., Wayne, New Jersey, USA pp. 68-69.
  18. Lin, K. W. and M. Y. Mei. 2000. Influences of gums, soy protein isolate and heating temperatures on reduced-fat meat batters in a model system. J. Food Sci. 65(1):48-52.
  19. Manish Kumar and B. D. Sharma. 2003b. Quality characteristics of low-fat ground pork patties containing milk co-precipitate. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(4):588-595.
  20. Manish Kumar and Sharma, B. D., R. B. Sharma and Sushil Kumar. 2004. Effect of carrageenan and sodium alginate on processing and sensory quality of low-fat ground pork patties. Ind. J. Anim. Res. 38(2):79-84.
  21. Matulis, R. J., F. K. McKeith, J. W. Sutherland and M. S. Brewer. 1995. Sensory characteristics of frankfurters as affected by fat, salt and pH. J. Food Sci. 60(1):48-51.
  22. Panin, J., M. Polic and M. Dordevic. 1974. The use of carrageenan in the manufacture of semi-perishable canned meat products. Technologija Mesa. 15(3):82-84.
  23. Trout, G. R., C. M. Chen and S. Dale. 1990. Effecte of calcium carbonate and sodium alginate on the textural charcateristics, colour and colour stability of restructured pork chops. J. Food Sci. 55(1):38-42.
  24. Zanardi, E., E. Novelli, V. Dorigoni, G. P. Ghiretti, S. Barbuti and R. Chizzolini. 1998. Low-fat salami Milano: Experimental formulations with some fat substitutes. Annali-delta Facoltadi-Medicina-Veterinaria-Universita-di-Parma. 18:173-183.
  25. Hoelscher, L. M., J. W. Savell, J. M. Harris, H. R. Cross and K. S. Rhee. 1987. Effect of initial fat level and cooking method on cholesterol content and calorific value of ground beef patties. J. Food Sci. 52:835-885.
  26. Mendoza, E., M. L.Garcia, C. Casa and M. D. Selgas. 2001. Inulin as fat substitute in low-fat, dry fermented sausages. Meat Sci. 57:387-393.
  27. Reitmeier, C. A. 1989. Chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of ground and comminuted pork with various fat levels and corn milling secondary products. Dissertation Abstracts Intl. B49 (9):3526.
  28. Carballo, J., G. Baretto and F. J. Colmenero. 1995. Starch and egg white influence on properties of bologna sausage as related to fat content. J. Food Sci. 60:673-677.
  29. Marinetti, G. V. 1962. Chromatographic separation, identification and analysis of phosphatides. J. Lipid Res. 3:1-20.
  30. Park, C. K., H. I. K. Song, J. H. Nam, Y. H. Moon and I. C. Jung. 2000. Effect of hydrocolloids on physico-chemical, textural and sensory properties of pork patties. J. Kor. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29(4):586-591.
  31. Means, W. J., A. D. Clarke, J. N. Sofos and G. R. Schmidt. 1987. Binding, sensory and storage properties of algin/calcium structured beef steaks. J. Food Sci. 52:252-256.
  32. Esguerra, C. M. 1994. Quality of cold-set restructured beef steaks: Effect of various binders, marination and frozen storage. Meat Industry Research Institute, NZ Pub. No. 945, Hamilton, Newzealand.
  33. Lin, K. W. and J. T. Keeton. 1998. Textural and physico-chemical properties of low-fat precooked ground beef patties containing carrageenan and sodium alginate. J. Food Sci. 64(4):571-574.
  34. Miller, M. F., M. K. Anderson, C. B. Ramsey and J. O. Reagan 1993. Physical and sensory charcateristics of low-fat ground beef patties. J. Food Sci. 58(3):461-463.
  35. Reitmeier, C. A. and K. J. Prusa. 1987. Cholesterol content and sensory analysis of ground pork as influenced by fat level and heating. J. Food Sci. 52:916-918.
  36. Hsu, S. Y. and H. Y. Chung. 2000. Comparison of three cooking methods on qualities of low-fat kung wans formulated with gum hydrate fat substitutes. J. Food Eng. 43(1):17-23.
  37. Abd-Ek Baki, M. M., A. Askar, M. S. El- Dashlouty and M. M. El- Ebzary. 1982. Characateristics of sausage as prepared with alginate and alginate casings. Nahrung, 26(3):295-303.
  38. Means, W. J. and G. R. Schmidt. 1986. Algin/calcium gel as a raw and cooked binder in structured beef steaks. J. Food Sci. 51(1):60-65.
  39. Trzebska, J. I., U. Rutkowska and Z. Zielinska. 1979. Comparison of methods for estimating the energy value of prepared meats. Roczniki-Panstwowega-Zaklandu-Higieny. 30(3):277-284.
  40. Frederick, T. L., M. F. Miller, K. S. Tinney, L. R. Bye and C. B. Ramsey. 1994. Characteristics of 95% lean beef German sausages varying in phosphate and added water. J. Food Sci. 59(3):453-455.
  41. Onsoyen, E. 1997. Alginates. In : Meson A, Ed. Thickening and Gelling agents for food 2nd Ed. London, U.K. Blackie Academic and Professional. pp. 22-44.
  42. Chin, K. B., J. T. Keeton, M. T. Longnecker and J. W. Lamkey. 1998. Functional, textural and microstructural properties of low-fat bologna (Model system) with konjac blend. J. Food Sci. 63(5):801-807.
  43. Berry, B. W. 1997. Sodium alginate plus modified tapoica starch improves properties of low-fat beef patties. J. Food Sci. 62(6):1245-1249.
  44. Berry, B. W. and D. M. Stiffler. 1981. Effect of electrical stimulation, boiling temperature, formulation and rate of freezing on sensory, cooking, chemical, physical properties of ground beef patties. J. Food Sci. 46:1103-1106.
  45. Ensor, S. A., E. A. Ernst, J. N. Sofos and G. R. Schmidt. 1989. Quality characteristics of restructured turkey meat with variable alginate/calcium ratios. J. Food Sci. 54(3):558-560.
  46. Manish Kumar and B. D. Sharma. 2003a. Soy protein as fat replacer: Texturized soy protein as fat replacer in low-fat ground pork patties. Fleishwirtshaft Intl. 4:54-58.
  47. Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1989. Statistical Methods, 8th edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
  48. Manish Kumar, B. D. Sharma and P. K. Nanda. 2004. Substantially less cholesterol 2: Effect of potato starch on Textural, Processing, Micro structural Quality. Fleishwirtshaft Intl. 1:66-71.
  49. Folch, J., M. Lees and G. H. Sloane-Stanley. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-509.
  50. Jay, J. M. 1996. In: Modern Food Microbiology. 4th edn., CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
  51. Jeon, D. S., Y. H. Moon, K. S. Park and I. C. Jung. 2004. Effects of gums on the quality of low-fat chicken patty. J. Kor. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 33(1):193-200.
  52. Raharjo, S., J. N. Sofos, J. A. Maga and G. R. Schmidt. 1989. Influence of meat restructuring systems on lipid oxidation in beef. Lebensm-Wiss. U-Technol. 22:199-203.
  53. Roughan, P. G. and R. D. Batt. 1968. Quantitative analysis of sulfolipid (sulfoquinoxosyl diglyceride) and galactolipids (Monogalactosyl and Digalactosyl diglycerides) in plant tissues. Anal. Biochem. 22:74-88.
  54. Barbut, S. and G. S. Mittal. 1996. Effect of three cellulose gums on the texture profile and sensory properties of low-fat frankfurters. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 31:241-247.
  55. Keeton, J. T. 1983. Effect of fat and NaCl/phosphate levels on the chemical and sensory properties of pork patties. J. Food Sci. 48:878-881.
  56. Kregel, K. K., K. J. Prusa and K. V. Hughes. 1986. Cholesterol content and sensory analysis of ground beef as influenced by fat level, heating and storage. J. Food Sci. 51:1162-1163.
  57. Berry, B. W. 1994. Properties of low-fat non breaded pork nuggets with added gums and modified starches. J. Food Sci. 62(6):1245-1249.
  58. Mittal, G. S. and S. Barbut. 1994. Effect of fat reduction on frankfurters physical and sensory characteristics. Food Res. Intl. 27:425-431.
  59. Manish Kumar and B. D. Sharma. 2004b. The storage stability and textural, physico-chemical and sensory quality of low-fat ground pork patties with carrageenan as fat replacer. International J. Food Sci. Techn. 39:31-42.
  60. Tarladgis, B. G., B. M. Watts, M. T. Younathan and L. R. Dugan. 1960. A distillation method for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 37:44-48.
  61. Manish Kumar and B. D. Sharma. 2004a. Quality and storage stability of low-fat pork patties containing barley flour as fat substitute. J. Food Sci. Techn. 41(5):496-502.
  62. Pomini, L. 1973. Marine algae. Rivista-Italiana Essenze, Profumi, Piante officinali, Aromi, saponi Cosmetici. 55(2):81-84.

Cited by

  1. Development of low fat beef patty using Cucurbita maxima Duchesne defatted seeds flour paste vol.10, pp.3, 2016,