DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Low Feed Intake in Newly-weaned Pigs: Problems and Possible Solutions

  • Dong, G.Z. (College of Animal Science and Technology, Southwest University) ;
  • Pluske, J.R. (College of Animal Science and Technology, Southwest University)
  • Received : 2006.04.16
  • Accepted : 2006.10.27
  • Published : 2007.03.01

Abstract

The low feed intake immediately after weaning is responsible for villous atrophy and reduced growth rate in newly-weaned pigs. Overcoming this drawback will produce beneficial results for swine producers, and this warrants an understanding of the factors affecting the feed intake in newly-weaned pigs. In fact, a plethora of factors exert influences on feed intake in newly-weaned pigs, and these factors encompass health status, creep feeding, weaning age, mixing of litters, environment, dietary nutrient level and balance, palatability of ingredients, forms of diet presentation, water supply and quality, and stockmanship. Due to the complexity of the factors that affect the feed intake of weaned pigs, a comprehensive approach should be adopted to overcome the low feed intake problem right after weaning. It warrants mention that it is almost impossible to completely restore the feed intake just after weaning to pre-weaning level in terms of energy intake through dietary means which are available for being practiced economically and/or technically in current swine production. However, a refined dietary regime will certainly alleviate the low feed intake problem in the immediate postweaning period.

References

  1. Barber, J., P. H. Brooks and J. L. Carpenter. 1989. The effects of water delivery rate on the voluntary food intake, water use and performance of early-weaned pigs from 3 to 6 weeks of age. In The Voluntary Food Intake of Pigs. Occasional Publications No. 13, Br. Soc. Anim. Prod. pp. 103-104.
  2. Bjork, A. K. K. 1989. Is social stress in pigs a detrimental factor to health and growth that can be avoided by amperzoide treatment. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 23:39-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(89)90005-1
  3. Brooks, P. H. 1994. Water-forgotten nutrient and novel delivery system. In Biotechnology in the Feed Industry, Proceedings of Alltech's Tenth Annual Symposium (P. Lyons and K. A. Jaques). Nottingham University Press, Loughborough, pp. 211-234.
  4. Brooks, P. H., S. J. Russel and J. L. Carpenter. 1984. Water intake of weaned piglets from three to seven weeks old. Vet. Rec. 115:513-518. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.115.20.513
  5. Bruininx, E. M. A. M., C. M. C. van der Peet-Schwering and J. W. Schrama. 2001. Individual feed intake of group-housed weaned pigs and health status. In The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management (Ed. M. A. Varley and J. Wiseman). CAB International, Oxon, pp. 113-122.
  6. Bruininx, E. M. A. M., G. P. Binnendijk, C. M. C. van der Peet- Schwering, J. W. Schrama, L. A. den Hartog, H. Everts and A. C, Beynen. 2002a. Effect of creep feed consumption on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1413-1418. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.8061413x
  7. Deprez, P., P. Deroose, C. Van der Hende, E. Muylle and W. Oyaert. 1987. Liquid versus dry feeding in weaned piglets: the influence on small intestinal morphology. J. Vet. Med. B34:254-259.
  8. Dunsford, B. P., D. A. Knabe and W. E. Haensly. 1989. Effect of dietary soybean meal on the microscopic anatomy of the small intestine in the early-weaned pig. J. Anim. Sci. 67:1855-1863. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1989.6771855x
  9. Ermer, P. M., P. S. Miller and A. J. Lewis. 1994. Diet preference and meal patterns of weanling pigs offered diets containing either spray-dried porcine plasma or dried skim milk. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1548-1554. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.7261548x
  10. Gatnau, R., C. Cain, R. Arentson and D. Zimmerman. 1993. Spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as an alternative ingredient in diets of weanling pigs. Pig News Info. 14:157N-159N.
  11. Goodband, R. D., M. D. Tobach and J. L. Nelssen. 1993. Feeding the weaned pig. In Advances in Pork Production, Proceedings of the 1993 Banff Pork Seminar, Vol. 4. (Ed. G. R. Foxcroft). University of Alberta, Edmonton, pp. 1-15.
  12. Han, Y. K., P. A. Thacker and J. S. Yang. 2006. Effects of the duration of liquid feeding on performance and nutrient digestibility in weaned pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:396-401. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.396
  13. Hollis, G. R., S. D. Carter, T. R. Cline, T. D. Crenshaw, G. L. Cromwell, G. M. Hill, S. W. Kim, A. J. Lewis, D. C. Mahan, P. S. Miller, H. H. Stein and T. L. Veum. 2005. Effects of replacing pharmaceutical levels of dietary zinc oxide with lower dietary levels of various organic zinc sources fro weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2123-2129.
  14. Jepson, M. M., J. M. Pell, P. C. Bates and D. J. Millward. 1986. The effects of endotoxemia on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle and liver of fed and fasted rats. Biochem. J. 235:329-336. https://doi.org/10.1042/bj2350329
  15. Kim, Y. Y., D. Y. Kil, H. K. Oh and In K. Han. 2005. Acidifer as an alternative material to antibiotics in animal feed. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1048-1060. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9975(66)90009-0
  16. Knabe, D. A., T. D. Tansksley, Jr. and J. H. Hesby. 1979. Effects of lysine, crude fiber and free gossypol in cottonseed meal on the performance of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 49:134-141. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1979.491134x
  17. Makkink, C. A., G. P. Negulescu, G. X. Qin and M. W. A. Verstegen. 1994. Effect of dietary protein source on feed intake, growth, pancreatic enzyme activities and jejunal morphology in newly-weaned piglets. Br. J. Nutr. 72:353-368. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19940039
  18. McGone, J. J., W. F. Stanbury and L. F. Tribble. 1987. Effects of heat and social stressors and within-pen weight variation on young pig performance and agonistic behaviour. J. Anim. Sci. 65:456-462. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1987.652456x
  19. McLaughlin, C. L., C. A. Baile, L. L. Buckholtz and S. K. Freeman. 1983. Preferred flavours and performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 56:1287-1293. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1983.5661287x
  20. Meunier-Salaun, M. C., M. Monnier, Y. Colleaux, B. Seve and Y. Henry. 1991. Impact of dietary tryptophan and behavioural type on behaviour, plasma cortisol, and brain metabolisms of young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 69:3689-3698. https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.6993689x
  21. Moon, H. K., In K. Han, H. K. Parmentier and J. W. Schrama. 1997. Effects of cell mediated immune response on energy metabolism in weanling piglets. In Procededings 14th symposium on Metabolism of Farm Animals (Ed. K. McCracken, E. F. Unsworth and A. R. G. Wylie). CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 143-146. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600069756
  22. Nabuurrs, M. J. A., A. Hoogendoorn, E. J. van der Molden and A. L. M. Van Osta. 1993a. Villous height and crypt depth in weaned and unweaned pigs, reared under various circumstances in the Netherlands. Res. Vet. Sci. 55:78-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-5288(93)90038-H
  23. Nessmith, W. B., Jr., J. L. Nelssen, M. D. Tobach, R. D. Goodband, J. R. Bergstrom, S. S. Dritz and B. T. Richert. 1997. Evaluation of the interrelationship among lactose and protein sources in diets for segregated early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:3214-3221. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.75123214x
  24. Pierzynowski, S. G., B. R. Westrom, J. Svendson and B. W. Karlsson. 1990. Development of exocrine pancreas function in chronically cannulated pigs during 1-13 weeks of postnatal life. J. Pedia. Gastroent. Nutr. 10:206-212. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-199002000-00011
  25. Rundgren, M. and I. Lorfquist. 1989. Effects on performance and behaviour of mixing 20-kg pigs fed individually. Anim. Prod. 49:311-315. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100032451
  26. Schell, T. C., M. D. Lindemann, E. T. Kornegay and D. J. Blodgett. 1993. Effects of feeding aflatoxin-contaminated diets with and without clay to weanling and growing pigs on performance, liver function, and mineral metabolism. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1209-1218. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100032451
  27. Seve, B., M. C. Meunier-Salaun, M. Monnier, Y. Cplleaux and Y. Henry. 1991. Impact of dietary tryptophan and behavioral type on growth performance and plasma amino acids of young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 69:3679-3688. https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.6993679x
  28. Sijben, J. W. C., P. N. A. Van Vugt, J. W. G. M. Swinkels, H. K. Parmentier and J. W. Schrama. 1997. Energy metabolism of immunised weanling pigs is not affected by dietary nucleotides. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutri. 79:153-161.
  29. Spurlock, M. E. 1997. Regulation of metabolism and growth during immune challenge: an overview of cytokine function. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1773-1783. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(87)90206-1
  30. Thacker, P. A. 1990. Canola meal. In Nontraditional Feed Sources for Use in Swine Production (Ed. P. A. Thacker and R. N. Kirkwood). Butterworths, Boston, pp. 69-82.
  31. Torrallarodona, D., L. L. Llaurado, E. Roura, J. Matas and F. Fort. 2000. Enhancement of the performance of 21 d old weanling pigs with the addition of feed flavors. In Abstracts of the 51st Annual Meeting of the EAAP. (Ed. J. A. M. van Arendonk, A. Hofer, Y. van der Honing, F. Mdec, K. Sejrsen, D. Pullar, L. Bodin, J. A. Fernandez and E. W. Bruns). Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, p. 346.
  32. van Beers-Schreurs, H. M. G., M. J. A. Nabuurrs, L. Vellenga and H. J. Breukink. 1995. The effect of weaning and diets on villous height and crypt depth in the small intestines of piglets. In Proc. of IXth Int'l Conf. Prod. Dise. Farm Anim. Berlin, Germany, p. 103.
  33. Wilson, R. H. and J. Leibholz. 1981b. Digestion in the pig between 7 and 35 d of age. 2. The digestion of dry matter and the pH of digesta in pigs given milk and soya-bean proteins. Br. J. Nutr. 45:321-336. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19810108
  34. Wilson, R. H. and J. Leibholz. 1981c. Digestion in the pig between 7 and 35 d of age. 3. The digestion of nitrogen in pigs given milk and soya-bean proteins. Br. J. Nutr. 45:337-346. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19810109
  35. Yun, J. H., I. K. Kwon, J. D. Lohakare, J. Y. Choi, J. S. Yong, J. Zheng, W. T. Cho and B. J. Chae. 2005. Comparative efficacy of plant and animal protein sources on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, morphology and caecal microbiology of early-weaned pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1285-1293. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00225-1
  36. Henry, Y. and B. Seve. 1993. Feed intake and dietary amino acid balance in growing pigs with special reference to lysine, tryptophan and threonine. Pig News Info. 14:35N-43N.
  37. Spicer, H. M. and F. X. Aherne. 1987. The effects of group size/stocking density on weanling pig performance and behaviour. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 19:89-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(87)90206-1
  38. Vente Spreeuwenberg, M. A. M. and A. C. Beynen. 2003. Dietmediated modulation of small intestine integrity in weaned pigs. In Weaning the Pig: concepts and consequences (Ed. J. R. Pluske, J. Le. Dividich and M. W. A. Verstegen). Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, Netherlands, pp. 145-198.
  39. Zhou, W., E. T. Konegay, H. Van Laar, J. W. G. M. Swinkels, E. A. Wong and M. D. Lindemann. 1994. The role of feed consumption and feed efficiency in copper-stimulated growth. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2385-2394. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-711X(94)90088-4
  40. Brumm, M. C. and H. W. Gonyou. 2001. Effects of facility design on behavior and feed and water intake. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 499-517.
  41. Chiba, L. I. 2001. Protein supplements. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 803-837.
  42. Nelson, C. E. 1992. Flavors for swine feeds: total feed palatability program. Feed Manag. April, 14-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-5288(93)90037-G
  43. Vergoni, A. V., R. Poggiolli, D. Marrama and A. Bertolini. 1990. Inhibition of feeding by ACTH-(1-24): behavioural and pharmacological aspects. Euro. J. Pharmac. 179:347-355. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-2999(90)90175-6
  44. Cranwell, P. D. 1977. Acid and pepsin secretion in young pigs reared solely by the sow or supplemented with solid food and weaned at 21d. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 36:142A.
  45. Davis, M. E., S. C. Sears, J. K. Apple, C. V. Maxwell and Z. B. Johnson. 2006. Effect of weaning age and commingling after the nursery phase of pigs in a wean-to-finish facility on growth, humoral and behavioral indicators of well-being. J. Anim. Sci. 84:743-756. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.843743x
  46. Kelly, D., J. A. Smith and K. J. McCracken. 1991b. Digestive development in the early-weaned pig. II. Effect of level of food intake on digestive enzyme activity during the immediate post-weaning period. Br. J. Nutr. 65:181-188. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19910079
  47. Pluske, J. R., I. H. Williams and F. X. Aherne. 1996a. Maintenance of villous height and crypt depth in piglets by providing continuous nutrition after weaning. Anim. Sci. 62:131-144. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800014417
  48. de Rodas, B. Z., K. S. Sohn, C. V. Maxwell and L. J. Spicer. 1995. Plasma protein for pigs weaned at 19 to 24 days of age: effect on performance and plasma insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, insulin, and glucose concentrations. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3657-3665. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.73123657x
  49. Dritz, S. S., M. D. Tobach, J. L. Nelssen, R. D. Goodband and L. J. Kats. 1993. Optimum dried whey level in starter pig diets containing spray-dried blood meal and comparison of avian and bovine spray-dried blood meals. J. Anim. Sci. 71 (Suppl. 1):57 https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.71157x
  50. Grinstend, G. S., R. D. Goodband, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach, J. L. Nelsssen, J. C. Woodworth and M. Molitor. 2000. Effects of a whey protein product and spray-dried animal plasma on growth performance of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 78:647-657. https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.783647x
  51. Markkink, C. A., G. P. Negulescu, Q. Guixin and M. W. A. Verstegen. 1994. Effect of dietary protein source on feed intake, growth, pancreatic enzyme activities and jejunal morphology in early-weaned pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 72:353-368. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19940039
  52. Miller, B. G., T. J. Newby, C. R. Stokes and F. J. Bourne. 1984b. Immune hypersensitivity and post-weaning diarrhoea in the pig. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 43:116A.
  53. Zamir, O., W. O'Brien, R. Thompson, D. C. Bloedow, J. E. Fischer and P. Hasselgren. 1994. Reduced muscle protein breakdown in septic rats following treatment with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Int. J. Biochem. 26:943-952. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-711X(94)90088-4
  54. Cunha, T. J. 1977. Swine Feeding and Nutrition. Academic Press, New York.
  55. Corring, T., A. Aumaitre and G. Durand. 1978. Development of digestive enzymes in the piglet from birth to 8 weeks. I. Pancreas and pancreatic enzymes. Nutr. Meta. 22:231-241. https://doi.org/10.1159/000176219
  56. Davis, M. E., C. V. Maxwell, D. C. Brown, B. Z. de Rodas, Z. B. Johnson, E. B. Kegley, D. H. Hellwig and R. A. Dvorak. 2002. Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharides and (or) pharmacological additions of copper sulfate on growth performance and immunocompetence of weanling and growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2887-2894. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.80112887x
  57. Gonyou, K. A., K. A. Rohde and A. C. Echeverri. 1986. Effects of sorting pigs by weight on behavior and productivity after mixing. J. Anim. Sci. 63 (Suppl. 1):163-164.
  58. Kelly, D., J. A. Smith and K. J. McCracken. 1990. Effect of creep feeding on structural and functional changes of the gut of early-weaned pigs. Res. Vet. Sci. 48:350-356.
  59. Kyriazakis, I., G. C. Emmans and C. T. Whittemore. 1990. Diet selection in pigs: choices made by growing pigs given foods of different protein concentrations. Anim. Prod. 51:189-199. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100005298
  60. Pluske, J. R. and G. Z. Dong. 1998. Factors influencing the utilisation of colostrum and milk. In The Lactating Sow (Ed. M. W. A. Verstegen, P. J. Moughan and J. W. Schrama). Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, pp. 45-70. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-199002000-00011
  61. Verdonk, J. M. A. J., M. A. M. Spreeuwenberg, G. C. M. Bakker and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2001b. Effect of protein source and feed intake level on histology of the small intestine in newly weaned piglets. In Digestive Physiology in Pigs (Ed. S. R. L. Vetagro). CAB International, Oxon, pp. 347-349.
  62. Williams, N. H., T. S. Stahly and D. R. Zimmerman. 1997c. Effect of chronic immune system activation on body nitrogen retention, partial efficiency of lysine utilization, and lysine needs of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2463-2471. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.7592463x
  63. Dove, C. R. 1995. The effect of copper level on nutrient utilization of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:166-171. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.731166x
  64. Kelly, K. W., S. Kent and R. Dantzer. 1993. Why sick animals don't grow: an immunological explanation. In Growth of the Pig (Ed. G. R. Hollis). CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 119-132. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19910079
  65. Li, D. F., J. L. Nelssen, P. G. Reddy, F. Blecha, R. D. Klemm and R. D. Goodband. 1991b. Interrelationship between hypersensitivity to soybean proteins and growth performance in early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 69:4062-4069. https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.69104062x
  66. Poulsen, H. D.1995. Zinc oxide for weanling piglets. Acta Agric. Scand. 45:159-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/09064719509413099
  67. Sohn, K. S., C. V. Maxwell, D. S. Buchanan and L. L. Southern. 1994. Improved soybean protein sources for early-weaned pigs: I. Effects on performance and total tract amino acid digestibility. J. Anim. Sci. 72:622-630. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600042179
  68. Traylor, S. L., K. C. Behnke, J. D. Hancock, P. Sorrell and R. H. Hines. 1996. Effect of pellet size on growth performance in nursery and finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74 (Suppl. 1):67.
  69. Whittemore, C. T. 1993. The Science and Practice of Pig Production. Longman Scientific & Technical, England. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-2999(90)90175-6
  70. Edge, H. L., J. A. Dalby, P. Rowlinson and M. A. Varley. 2005. The effect of pellet diameter on the performance of young pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 97:203-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2005.04.009
  71. Glatz, P. C. 2001. Effect of different lighting sources on behavior and growth of weanling pigs. Asian-Aust J. Anim. Sci. 14:280-287. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.280
  72. Kelly, D., J. A. Smith and K. J. McCracken. 1991a. Digestive development in the early-weaned pig. I. Effect of continuous nutrient supply on the development of the digestive tract and on changes in digestive enzyme activity during the first week post-weaning. Br. J. Nutr. 65:169-180. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19910078
  73. Li, D. F., J. L. Nelssen, P. G. Reddy, F. Blecha, J. D. Hancock, G. L. Allee, R. D. Goodband and R. D. Klemm. 1990. Transient hypersensitivity to soybean meal in early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1790-1799. https://doi.org/10.2527/1990.6861790x
  74. McCracken, B. A., M. E. Spurlock, M. A. Roos and F. A. Zuckerann. 1999. Weaning anorexia may contribute to local inflammation in the piglet small intestine. J. Nutr. 129:613-619. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/129.3.613
  75. Ohh, S. H., K. N. Han, B. J. Chae, In K. Han and S. P. Acda. 2002. Effects of feed processing methods on growth performance and ileal digestibility of amino acids in young pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:1765-1772. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.1765
  76. Patridge, G. 2001. The weaner pig-enzymes and biotechnology in the future. In The Weaner Pig: Nutrition and Management (Ed. M. A. Varley and J. Wiseman). CAB International, Oxon, pp. 123-152.
  77. Rozeboom, D. W., D. T. Shaw, R. J. Tempelman, J. C. Miguel, J. E. Pettigrew and A. Connolly. 2005. Effect of mannan oligosaccharide and an antimicrobial product in nursery diets on performance of pigs reared on three different farms. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2637-2644. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.83112637x
  78. Corring, T. 1980. The adaptation of digestive enzymes to the diet: its physiological significance. Rep. Nutr. Devel. 20:1217-1235. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:19800713
  79. Hancock, J. D. and K. C. Behnke. 2001. Use of ingredient and diet processing technologies (grinding, mixing, pelleting, and extruding) to produce quality feeds for pigs. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 469-497.
  80. Stokes, C. K., B. G. Miller, M. Bailey, A. D. Wilson and F. J. Bourne. 1987. The immune response to dietary antigens and its influence on disease susceptibility in farm animals. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 17:413-423. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(87)90158-9
  81. van Heugten, E. 2001. Mycotoxins and other antinutritional factors in swine feeds. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 563-583. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(95)00058-S
  82. Cranwell, P. D. 1985. The development of acid and pepsin (EC 3.4.23.1) secretory capacity in the pig: effects of age and weaning. 1. Studies in anaesthetized pig. Br. J. Nutr. 54:305-320. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19850113
  83. Cranwell, P. D. and S. J. Stuart. 1984. The Effect of diet and liveweight on gastric secretion in the young pig. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 15:669
  84. D'Mello, J. P. F. 2003. Adverse effects of amino acids. In Amino Acids in Animal Nutrition, 2nd Edition (Ed. J. P. F. D'Mell0). CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 125-142.
  85. Kats, L. J., J. L. Nelssen, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, T. L. Weeden, S. S. Dritz, J. A. Hansen and K. G. Frisen. 1994. The effects of spray-dried blood meal on growth performance of the early-weaned pig. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2860-2869. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.72112860x
  86. Patridge, I. G. 1989. Alternative feeding strategies for weaner pigs. In Manipulation of Pig Production (Ed. J. L. Barnett and D. P. Hennessy). Aust. Pig Sci. Assoc., Victoria, pp. 160-169.
  87. Worobec, E. K., I. J. H. Duncan and T. M. Widowski. 1999. The effects of weaning at 7, 14, and 28 days on piglet behavior. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 62:173-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00225-1
  88. Le Dividich, J. and P. Herpine. 1994. Effects of climatic conditions on the performance, metabolism and health status of weaned pigs. Lives. Prod. Sci. 38:79-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(94)90052-3
  89. Mateos, G. G., F. Martın, M. A. Latorre, B. Vicente and R. Lazaro. 2006. Inclusion of oat hulls in diets for young pigs based on cooked maize or cooked rice. Anim. Sci. 82:57-64. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19940039
  90. Smith, J. W., M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, J. L. Nelssen and B. T. Richert. 1997. Effects of the interrelationship between zinc oxide and copper sulphate on growth performance of earlyweaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1861-1866. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.7571861x
  91. Aherne, F. X. and J. J. Kennelly. 1985. Oilseed meals for livestock feeding. In Recent Developments in Pig Nutrition (D. J. A. Cole and W. Haresign). Butterworths, London, pp. 278-296.
  92. Blackshaw, J. W., D. A. V. Bodero and A. W. Blackshaw. 1987. The effect of group composition on behaviour and performance of weaned pigs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 19:73-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(87)90204-8
  93. Hampson, D. J. and D. E. Kidder. 1986. Influence of creep feeding and weaning on brush border enzyme activities in the piglet small intestine. Res. Vet. Sci. 40:24-31.
  94. Hill, G. M., G. L. Cromwell, T. D. Crenshaw, C. R. Dove, R. C. Ewan, D. A. Knabe, A. J. Lewis, G. W. Libal, D. C. Mahan, G. C. Shurson, L. L. Southern and T. L. Veum. 2000. Growth promotion effects and plasma changes from feeding high dietary concentrations of zinc and copper to weanling pigs (regional study). J. Anim. Sci. 78:1010-1016. https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.7841010x
  95. Koopmans, S. J., A. C. Guzik, J. van der Meulen, R. Dekker, J. Kogut, B. J. Kerr and L. L. Southern. 2006. Effects of supplemental L-tryptophan on serotonin, cortisol, intestinal integrity, and behavior in weanling piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 84:963-971. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.844963x
  96. Patridge, G. G. and B. P. Gill. 1993. New approaches with pig weaning diets. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition (Ed. P. C. Garnsworthy and D. J. A. Cole). Nottingham University Press, Leicestershire, pp. 221-248.
  97. Thacker, P. A. 2001. Water in swine nutrition. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 381-398.
  98. Aherne, F. X. and J. M. Bell. 1990. Canola seed: full fat. In Nontraditional Feed Sources for Use in Swine Production (P. A. Thacker and R. N. Kirkwood). Butterworths, Boston, pp. 79-94.
  99. MWPS. 1991. Swine Housing and Equipment Handbook, 4th ed. Midwest Plan Service MWPS-8, Ames, IA.
  100. van Beers-Schreurs, H. M. G. 1996. Changes in the Function of the Large Intestine of Weaned pigs. PhD dissertation, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  101. Cromwell, G. 2001. Antimicrobial and promicrobial agents. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 401-426.
  102. Ettle, T. and F. X. Roth. 2004. Specific dietary selection for tryptophan by the piglet. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1115-1121. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8241115x
  103. Gentry, J. L., J. W. G. M. Swinkels, M. D. Lindemann and J. W. Schrama. 1997. Effect of hemoglobin and immunisation status on energy metabolism of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1032-1040. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.7541032x
  104. Hsia, L. C. 2005. The effect of spry-dried porcine plasma and tryptophan on feed intake and performance of weanling pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:75-79 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.75
  105. Jensen, A. H. 1966. Pelleting rations fro swine. Feedstuffs 38: 24-27.
  106. Kenworthy, R. and W. D. Allen. 1966. Influence of diet and bacteria on small intestine morphology, with special reference to early weaning and Escherichia coli. J. Comp. Patho. 76:291-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9975(66)90009-0
  107. McCracken, B. A., H. R. Gaskins, P. Ruwe-Kaiser, K. C. Klasing and D. E. Jewell. 1995. Diet-dependent and diet-independent metabolic responses underline growth stasis of pigs at weaning. J. Nutr. 125:2833-2845.
  108. Mrosovsky, N., L. A. Molony, C. A. Conn and M. J. Kluger. 1989. Anorexic effects of interleukin-1 in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 257:R1315-1345.
  109. Nabuurrs, M. J. A. 1991. Etiologic and Pathogenic Studies on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea. PhD dissertation, State University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  110. Nabuurrs, M. J. A., F. G. van Zijderveld, P. W. De Leeuw. 1993b. Clinical and microbiological field studies in the Netherlands of diarrhea in pigs at weaning. Res. Vet. Sci. 55:70-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-5288(93)90037-G
  111. Brumm, M. C. and D. P. Shelton. 1986. Nursery drinkers-how many? Nebraska Swine Report EC86-219, University of Nebraska Coop. Ext., Lincoln, p. 5.
  112. Newby, T. J., B. Miller, C. R. Stokes, D. Hampson and F. J. Bourne. 1984. Local hypersensitivity response to dietary antigens in early weaned pigs. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition (Ed. W. Haresign and D. J. A. Cole). Butterworths, London, pp. 49-59.
  113. Williams, N. H., T. S. Stahly and D. R. Zimmerman. 1997a. Effect of chronic immune system activation on the rate, efficiency, and composition of growth and lysine needs of pigs fed from 6 to 27 kg. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2463-2471. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.7592463x
  114. Wilson, R. H. and J. Leibholz. 1981d. Digestion in the pig between 7 and 35 d of age. 4. The digestion of amino acids in pigs given milk and soya-bean proteins. Br. J. Nutr. 45:347-3357. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19810110
  115. de Passille, A. M. B., G. Pelletier, J. Menard and J. Morisset. 1989. Relationships of weight gain and behavior to digestive organ weight and enzyme activities in piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2921-2929. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1989.67112921x
  116. Lepine, A. J., D. C. Mahan and Y. K. Chung. 1991. Growth performance of weanling pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets with or without dried whey at various L-lysine.HCl levels. J. Anim. Sci. 69:2026-2032. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(94)90052-3
  117. Pluske, J. R. and I. H. Williams. 1996. The influence of feeder type and the method of group allocation at weaning on voluntary food intake and growth in piglets. Anim. Sci. 62:115-120. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800014399
  118. Tanksley, T. K., Jr. 1990. Cottonseed meal. In Nontraditional Feed Sources for Use in Swine Production (Ed. Thacker, P. A. and R. N. Kirkwood). Butterworths, Boston, pp. 139-156.
  119. Verdonk, J. M. A. J., M. A. M. Spreeuwenberg, G. C. M. Bakker and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2001a. Nutrient intake level affects histology and permeability of the small intestine in newly weaned piglets. In Digestive Physiology in Pigs (Ed. S. R. L. Vetagro). CAB International, Oxon, pp. 332-334.
  120. Brumm, M. C., M. Ellist, L. J. Johnston, D. W. Rozeboom, D. R. Zimmerman and the NCR-89 Committee on Swine Management. 2001. Interaction of swine nursery and grow-finish space allocations on performance. J. Anim. Sci. 79:1967-1972. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.7981967x
  121. Miller, B. G., T. J. Newby, C. R. Stokes and F. J. Bourne. 1984a. Influence of diet on postweaning malabsorption and diarrhea in the pig. Res. Vet. Sci. 36:187-193.
  122. van Diemen, P. M., J. W. Schrama, W. van der Hel, M. W. A. Verstegen and J. P. T. M. Noordhuizen. 1995. Effects of atrophic rhinitis and climatic environment on the performance of pigs. Lives. Prod. Sci. 43:275-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(95)00058-S
  123. Williams, N. H., T. S. Stahly and D. R. Zimmerman. 1997b. Effect of level of chronic immune system activation on the rate, efficiency, and composition of growth and dietary lysine needs of pigs fed from 6 to 112 kg. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2463-2471. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.7592463x
  124. Bruininx, E. M. A. M., M. J. W. Heetkamp, D. van den Bogaart, C. M. C. van der Peet-Schwering, A. C. Beynen, H. Everts, L. A. den Hartog and J. W. Schrama. 2002b. A prolonged photoperiod improves feed intake and energy metabolism of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1736-1745 https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.8071736x
  125. Cera, K. R., D. C. Mahan, R. F. Cross, G. A. Reinhart and R. E. Whitmoyer. 1988. Effect of age, weaning and postweaning diet on small intestinal growth and jejunal morphology in young swine. J. Anim. Sci. 66:574-584. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1988.662574x
  126. Coffey, R. D. and G. L. Cromwell. 1995. The impact of environment and antimicrobial agents on the growth response of early-weaned pigs to spray-dried porcine plasma. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2532-2539. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7392532x
  127. Mahan, D. C., N. D. Fastinger and J. C. Peters. 2004. Effects of diet complexity and dietary lactose levels during three starter phases on postweaning pig performance. J. Anim. Sci. 82:2790-2797. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8292790x
  128. Pluske, J. R., D. J. Hampson and I. H. Williams. 1997. Factors influencing the structure and function of the small intestine in the weaned pig: a review. Lives. Prod. Sci. 51:215-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(97)00057-2
  129. Litrap, D. O. and M. G. Hogberg. 1991. Physical forms of feed: feed processing and feeder design and operation. In Swine Nutrition (Ed. E. R. Miller, D. E. Ullrey and A. J. Lewis). Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, pp. 373-386.
  130. Bell, J. M. 1984. Nutrients and toxicants in rapeseed meal: a review. J. Anim. Sci. 58:996-1010. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1984.584996x
  131. Klasing, K. C. 1988. Nutritonal aspects of leukocytic cytokines. J. Nutr. 118:1436-1446. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/118.12.1436
  132. Poulsen, J. R. 1989. Zinc oxide for weaned pigs. In Proc. 4th Annu. Meet. Eur. Assoc. Anim. Prod. EAAP, Rome, pp. 8-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(97)00057-2
  133. Edmonds, M. S., B. E. Arentson, W. A. Nipper and D. L. Froe II. 1997. Segregated early weaning: effects of raising pigs on-site and off-site with and without vaccination on performance and economics. J. Anim. Sci. 75 (Suppl. 1):195. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.751195x
  134. Forbes, J. M. 1995. Voluntary food intake and diet selection. CAB International, Wallingford.
  135. Noblet, J., J. Le Dividich and J. Van Milgen. 2001. Thermal environment and swine nutrition. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 519-544.
  136. Pierce, J. L., G. L. Cromwell, M. D. Lindemann, L. E. Russell and E. M. Weaver. 2005. Effects of spray-dried animal plasma and immunoglobulins on performance of early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2876-2885. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.83122876x
  137. Wilson, R. H. and J. Leibholz. 1981a. Digestion in the pig between 7 and 35 d of age. 1. The performance of pigs given milk and soya-bean proteins. Br. J. Nutr. 45:301-319. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19810107
  138. Kornegay, E. T., M. D. Liendemann and V. Rarindran. 1993. Effects of dietary lysine levels on performance and immune response of weanling pigs housed at two floor space allowances. J. Anim. Sci. 71:552-556 https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.713552x
  139. Mahan, D. C. 1992. Efficacy of dried whey and its lactalbumin and lactose components at two dietary lysine levels on postweaning pig performance and nitrogen balance. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2182-2187. https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.7072182x
  140. Maxwell, C. V., Jr. and S. D. Carter. 2001. Feeding the weaned pig. In Swine Nutrition, 2nd (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 682-715.
  141. McConnell, J. C., J. C. Eargle and R. C. Waldorf. 1987. Effects of weaning weight, commingling, group size and room temperature on pig performance. J. Anim. Sci. 65:1201-1206. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1987.6551201x
  142. Smith, M. W. 1984. Effect of postnatal development and weaning upon the capacity of pig intestinal villi to transport alanine. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 102:625-633. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600042179
  143. Stoner, G. R., G. L. Allee, J. L. Nelssen, M. E. Johnston and R. D. Goodband. 1990. Effect of select menhaden fish meal in starter diets for pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 68:2729-2735. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(87)90158-9
  144. Dybkjaer, L., A. P. Jacobsen, F. A. Togersen and H. D. Poulsen. 2006. Eating and drinking activity of newly weaned piglets: Effects of individual characteristics, social mixing, and addition of extra zinc to the feed. J. Anim. Sci. 84:702-711. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.843702x
  145. Hampson, D. J. 1986. Alterations in piglet small intestinal structure at weaning. Res. Vet. Sci. 40:32-40.
  146. Kornegay, E. T. and D. R. Notter. 1984. Effects of floor space and number of pigs per pen on performance. Pig News Info. 5:23-33.
  147. McGone, J. J. and S. E. Curtis. 1985. Behaviour and performance of weanling pigs in pens equipped with hide area. J. Anim. Sci. 60:20-24. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1985.60120x
  148. Miller, B. G., P. S. James, M. W. Smith and F. J. Bourne. 1986. Effect of weaning on the capacity of pig intestine villi to digest and absorb nutrients. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 107:579-589. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600069756
  149. Pluske, J. R., I. H. Williams and F. X. Aherne. 1996b. Villous height and crypt depth in piglets in response to increases in the intake of cow's milk after weaning. Anim. Sci. 62:145-158. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800014429
  150. Vente Spreeuwenberg, M. A. M., J. M. A. J. Verdnok, A. C. Beynen and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2003. Interrelationships between gut morphology and feces consistency in newlyweaned piglets. Anim. Sci. 77:85-94.
  151. Baxter, M. R. 1991. The design of the feeding environment for pigs. In Manipulating Pig Production. (Ed. E. S. Batterham). Aust. Pig Sci. Assoc. Victoria, pp. 150-158.
  152. Forbes, J. M. 1999. Natural feeding behaviour and feed selection. In Regulation of Food Intake (Ed. D. van der Heide, E. A. Huisman, E. Kanis, J. W. M. Osse and M. W. A. Verstegen). CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 3-12.
  153. Friend, T. H., D. A. Knabe and T. D. Tanksley. 1983. Behaviour and performance of pigs regrouped by three different methods at weaning. J. Anim. Sci. 57:1406-1411. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1983.5761406x
  154. Goodband, R. D., M. D. Tobach, S. S. Dritz and J. L. Nelssen. 1995. Practical nutrition for the segregated early weaned pig. In Proc. of Saskatchewan Pork Industry Symp., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, pp. 15-25.
  155. Li, D. F., J. L. Nelssen, P. G. Reddy, F. Blecha, R. D. Klemm, G. W. Giesting, J. W. Hancock, G. L. Allee and R. D. Goodband. 1991a. Measuring suitbility of soybean products for earlyweaned pigs with immunological critirea. J. Anim. Sci. 69:3299-3307. https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.6983299x
  156. Reis de Souza, T. C., G. Mariscal Landin and A. Aguilera Barreyro. 2005. Effect of different cereals on nutrient digestibility and dietary preference in starter diets for piglets. Veterinaria-Mexico 36:11-24.

Cited by

  1. F4 vol.94, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas2013-178
  2. Effects of antibacterial peptide on humoral immunity in weaned piglets vol.26, pp.5, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1080/09540105.2015.1007448
  3. Dietary lysine requirement for 7-16 kg pigs fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets vol.101, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12491
  4. Dietary glutamine, glutamic acid and nucleotides increase the carbon turnover (δ 13C) on the intestinal mucosa of weaned piglets vol.11, pp.09, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731117000192
  5. Pelleting of diet for weaning pigs of different initial weights vol.47, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20131406
  6. Mannan Oligosaccharides in Nursery Pig Nutrition and Their Potential Mode of Action vol.2, pp.2, 2012, https://doi.org/10.3390/ani2020261
  7. Effects of a yeast-dried milk product in creep and phase-1 nursery diets on growth performance, circulating immunoglobulin A, and fecal microbiota of nursing and nursery pigs1 vol.92, pp.10, 2014, https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2014-7574
  8. Effects of the Consumption of <i>Macleaya cordata</i> Extract Preparation by Sows vol.08, pp.03, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2018.83022
  9. Dietary l-arginine supplementation enhances the immune status in early-weaned piglets vol.37, pp.2, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-008-0155-1
  10. A combination of yeast beta-glucan and milk hydrolysate is a suitable alternative to zinc oxide in the race to alleviate post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets vol.9, pp.1, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37004-9