DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Comparison of In vitro Gas Production, Metabolizable Energy, Organic Matter Digestibility and Microbial Protein Production of Some Legume Hays

  • Karabulut, Ali (Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Animal Science Department) ;
  • Canbolat, Onder (Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Animal Science Department) ;
  • Kalkan, Hatice (Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Animal Science Department) ;
  • Gurbuzol, Fatmagul (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Agriculture Province Directorate) ;
  • Sucu, Ekin (Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Animal Science Department) ;
  • Filya, Ismail (Uludag University, Faculty of Agriculture, Animal Science Department)
  • Received : 2006.03.15
  • Accepted : 2006.05.09
  • Published : 2007.04.01

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare in vitro gas production kinetics, metabolizable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and microbial protein (MP) production of widely used legume hays in ruminant nutrition in Turkey. Gas production were determined at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and their kinetics were described using the equation p = a+b ($1-e^{-ct}$). There were significant differences among legume hays in terms of chemical composition. The crude protein content of legume hays ranged from 11.7 to 18.6% of dry matter (DM); crude fat from 2.1 to 3.5% DM; neutral detergent fiber from 35.6 to 52.0% DM; acid detergent fiber from 32.0 to 35.5% DM and acid detergent lignin 1.7 to 11.0% DM. Total gas production after 96 h incubation ranged between 61.67 and 76.00 ml/0.200 g of substrate. At 24, 72 and 96 h incubation the total gas production for common vetch were significantly (p<0.01) higher than those of the other legume hays. The ME, OMD and MP of legume hays ranged from 9.09 to 11.12 MJ/kg DM, 61.30 to 75.54% and 90.35 to 138.05 g/kg DM, respectively. The ME, OMD and MP of common vetch was significantly (p<0.01) higher than those of the other hays due to low cell-wall contents and high crude protein. At the end of the experiment, differences in chemical composition of legume hays resulted in the differences in the in vitro gas production, gas production kinetics and the estimated parameters such as ME, OMD and MP. Common vetch can be recommended to hay producers and ruminant breeders, due to high ME, OMD and MP production.

Keywords

Legume Hay;Gas Production;Digestibility;Metabolizable Energy;Microbial Protein

Acknowledgement

Supported by : University of Uludag

References

  1. Getachew, G., E. J. DePeters and P. H. Robinson. 2004. In vitro gas production provides effective method for assessing ruminant feeds. California Agric. 58:54-58 https://doi.org/10.3733/ca.v058n01p54
  2. Gutteridge, R. C. and H. M. Shelton. 1994. Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agricuture. CABI Publishing. Wallingford, Oxon, UK
  3. Makkar, H. P. S. 2005. In vitro gas methods for evaluation of feeds containing physiochemicals. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 123-124:291-302 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.06.003
  4. Menke, K. H. and H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev. 28:9-55
  5. Ozturk, D., M. Kizilsimsek, A. Kamalak, O. Canbolat and C. O. Ozkan. 2006. Effects of ensiling alfalfa with whole maize crop on the chemical composition and nutritive value of silage mixtures. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19(4):526-532 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.526
  6. Pearse, E. S. and H. O. Hartley. 1966. Biometrika tables for statisticians. Cambridge University Press. UK. 1:1-270
  7. Rymer, C. and D. I. Givens. 1999. The use of the in vitro gas production technique to investigate the effect of substrate on the partitioning between microbial biomass production and the yield of fermentation products. Proc. Br. Soc. Anim. Sci. p. 36
  8. Filya, I., A. Karabulut, O. Canbolat, T. Degirmencioglu and H. Kalkan. 2002 Investigations on determination of nutritive values and optimum evaluation conditions by animal organisms of the foodstuffs produced at Bursa province by in vivo and in vitro methods. The Series of Scientific Researhes and Investigations. Uludag University Agricultural Faculty. No. 25 (In Turkish)
  9. Leng, R. A. 1993. Quantitative ruminant nutrient a green science. Aust. J. Agric. Sci. 44:363-380 https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9930363
  10. Duane, E. U. 1997. Hay quality evaluation. Nutrition Advisory Group Handbook. http://www.nagonline.net/Technical%20 Papers/NAGFS00197Hay-JONIFEB24,2002MODIFIED.pdf
  11. Buxton, D. R. 1996. Quality-related characteristics of forages as influenced by plant environment and agronomic factors. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 59:37-49 https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00885-3
  12. Orskov, E. R. and P. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighed according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. 92:499-503 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063048
  13. Ranilla, M. J., S. Lopez, M. D. Carro, R. J. Wallace and C. J. Newbold. 2001. Effect of fibre source on the efficiency of microbial synthesis by mixed microorganisms from the sheep rumen in vitro. Proc. Br. Soc. Anim. Sci. p. 151
  14. Stern, M. D. and W. H. Hoover. 1979. Methods for determining and factors affecting rumen microbial protein synthesis: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 49:1590-1603 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1979.4961590x
  15. Karsli, M. A. and J. R. Russell. 2001. Effects of some dietary factors on ruminal microbial protein synthesis. Tr. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 25:681-686
  16. Parissi, Z. M., T. G. Papachristou and A. S. Nastis. 2005. Effect of drying method on estimated nutritive value of browse species using an in vitro gas production technique. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 30:119-128
  17. Chang, M. B., J. W. Joo, G. S. Bae, W. K. Min, H. S. Choi, W. J. Maeng and Y. H. Chung. 2005. Effect of protein sources on rumen microbial protein synthesis using simulated continuous culture system. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18(3):326-331 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.326
  18. Stastica, 1993. Stastica for windows release 4.3, StatSoft, Inc. Tulsa, OK, USA
  19. Blummel, M., H. P. S. Makkar and K. Becker. 1997a. In vitro gas production-a technique revisied. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 77:24-34 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.1997.tb00734.x
  20. Sinclair, L. A., P. C. Garnsworthy, J. R. Newbold and P. J. Buttery. 1995. Effects of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen in diets with similar carbohydrate composition on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep. J. Agric. Sci. 124:463-472 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600073421
  21. Kamalak, A., O. Canbolat, A. Erol, C. Kilinc, M. Kizilsimsek, C.O. Ozkan and E. Ozkose. 2005a. Effect of variety on chemical composition, in vitro gas production, metabolizable energy and organic matter digestibility of alfalfa hays. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 17:77
  22. Van Soest, P. J., J. D. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animals nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  23. AOAC. 1990. Official Method of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th ed. Washington DC. USA
  24. Cone, J. W. and A. H. Van Gelder. 1999. Influence of protein fermentation on gas production profiles. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 76:251-256 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(98)00222-3
  25. Morrison, F. B. 1956. Feeds and Feeding. 22nd ed. Morrison Publishing Company. Clinton, IA, USA
  26. Tolera, A., K. Khazaal and E. R. Orskov. 1997. Nutritive evaluation of some browse species. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 67:181-195 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(96)01119-4
  27. Blummel, M., A. Karsli and J. R. Russell. 2003. Influence of diet on growth yields of rumen microorganisms in vitro and in vivo: influence on growth yield of variable carbon fluxes to fermentation products. Br. J. Nutr. 90:625-634 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2003934
  28. Srinivas, B. and U. Krishnamoorthy. 2005. Influence of diet induced changes in rumen microbial characteristics on gas production kinetics of straw substrates in vitro. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18(7):990-996 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.990
  29. Hoover, W. H. and S. R. Stokes. 1991. Balancing carbohydrates and proteins for optimum rumen microbial yield. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3630-3644 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78553-6
  30. Kamalak, A., O. Canbolat, Y. Gurbuz, A. Erol and O. Ozay. 2005b. Effect of maturity stage on chemical composition, in vitro and in situ dry matter degradation of tumbleweed hay (Gundelia tournefortii L.). Small Rumin. Res. 58:149-156 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2004.09.011
  31. Menke, K. H., L. Raab, A. Salewski, H. Steingass, D. Fritz and W. Schneider. 1979. The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 92:217-222
  32. Blummel, M., H. Steingass and K. Becker. 1997b. The relationship between in vitro gas production, in vitro microbial biomass yield and n-15 incorporation and its implications for the prediction of voluntary feed intake of roughages. Br. J. Nutr. 77:911-921 https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19970089
  33. Ensminger, M. E., J. E. Oldfield and W. W. Heinemann. 1990. Feeds and Nutrition. The 2nd ed. The Ensminger Publishing Company. Clovis, CA, USA. pp. 1265-1511

Cited by

  1. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation vol.28, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.13.0798
  2. Genetic potential of wild birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) seeds collected from different geographical locations regarding to nutrient composition and nutritive value vol.89, pp.6, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-015-9828-4