Critical Literature Review on Exposure Assessment Methods for Metalworking Fluids in Epidemiological Cancer Study

금속가공유 노출과 암 발생위험역학조사에서 금속가공유 노출 평가 방법에 대한 고찰

  • Park, Donguk (Department of Environmental Health, Korea National Open University)
  • 박동욱 (한국방송통신대학교 환경보건학과)
  • Received : 2007.11.14
  • Accepted : 2007.12.03
  • Published : 2007.12.31

Abstract

그 동안 많은 역학연구를 통해서 금속가공유(metalworking fluid, MWFs) 노출과 여러 조직에서 암 발생 위험과의 관계를 밝혔지만, 금속가공유 종류(비수용성, 수용성, 합성, 준합성)별로 구분된 위험은 아직 완전하게 규명되지 않았다. 역학조사에서 금속가공유 노출을 대체할 수 있는 인자(surrogate)로서 정성적(qualitative), 명목적(ordinal) 혹은 준정량적인(semi-quantitative) 변수들(금속가공유에 대한 노출 유무, 노출 정도: 높음, 낮음 등, 직업 유무, 근무기간 등)을 이용하여 금속가공유 노출을 평가하였다. 이러한 노출평가방법은 기본적으로 금속가공유 노출 강도(intensity)가 고려되지 않을 뿐만 아니라 노출 분류 오류(misclassification)도 항상 존재할 수 있어 금속가공유 노출은 물론이고 종류별 위험을 밝히기 어렵다. 일부 역학연구에서 금속가공유 종류별 누적 노출양(cumulative exposure level)과 암위험과의 관계를 밝혔다. 이러한 연구결과들은 모두 금속가공유 종류별로 과거노출을 추정할 수 있는 자료(정량적인 노출평가자료, 과거직업력, 취급했던 금속가공유 종류 등)가 잘 기록되어 있는 1개의 대규모 자동차공장에서 나온 것들이다. 따라서 금속가공유에 대한 노출자료가 부족하고 사용특성에 대한 기록이 없거나 부족한 일반 인구나 산업을 대상으로 한 역학연구에서는 금속가공유의 종류별 위험을 밝히는것은 불가능하다. 금속가공유 종류별로 과거 노출에 대한 확률(probability)을 추정하는데 일반적으로 활용할 수 있는 노출확률 메트릭스를 개발하는 것이 필요하다.

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