Use of Chemical Treatments to Reduce Tannins and Trypsin Inhibitor Contents in Salseed (Shorea robusta) Meal

  • Mahmood, S. (Department of Poultry Husbandry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad) ;
  • Khan, Ajmal M. (Dairy Cattle Research Division, National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Sarwar, M. (Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad) ;
  • Nisa, M. (Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad) ;
  • Lee, W.S. (Dairy Cattle Research Division, National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Kim, S.B. (Dairy Cattle Research Division, National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Hur, T.Y. (Dairy Cattle Research Division, National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Lee, H.J. (Dairy Cattle Research Division, National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Kim, H.S. (Dairy Cattle Research Division, National Institute of Animal Science)
  • 투고 : 2006.01.23
  • 심사 : 2007.04.05
  • 발행 : 2007.09.01


This study investigated the effect of chemical treatments on tannins (condensed and hydrolysable) and on the trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity in salseed meal. Triplicate samples of ground salseed meal (1 kg) were mixed with 820 ml of either distilled water (pH 5.3), 0.67 M acetic acid (pH 2.4), 0.67 M sodium bicarbonate (pH 8.2) or 2% polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) solution. The material was placed in airtight plastic containers and incubated at $37^{\circ}C$ for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Samples of untreated salseed meal which had not been subjected to soaking or incubation were run through the analysis to serve as control. Addition of water, acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate and PVP solutions to salseed meal and subsequent anaerobic incubation at $37^{\circ}C$ significantly reduced chemically detectable tannins. At each incubation time, alkali solution was more effective than its counterparts. The effect of acidic solution on hydrolysable tannin was least among the treatments. All the treatments reduced TI activity of salseed meal. The reduction in TI activity by these treatments was similar and ranged between 80-84%. Treatment time effected a decrease in the contents of antinutritional substances. However, the effect of the treatment with the reagents, even for zero incubation time, was quite pronounced. It may be concluded from the present results that the treatment of salseed meal with sodium bicarbonate (0.67 M) is more effective in reducing hydrolysable and condensed tannin contents than PVP, water and acid solutions. Treatment with sodium bicarbonate solution is more economical and easier to handle than acid and PVP treatments. Incubation of the treated material for 12 h is reasonably effective, economical and safe from any mould growth.


  1. Asquith, T. N. and L. G. Butler. 1985. Use of dye-labelled protein as a spectrophotometric assay for protein precipitants such as tannin. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1535-1544
  2. Chavan, J. K., S. S. Kadam, C. P. Ghonsikar and D .K. Salunkhe. 1979. Removal of tannins and improvement of in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum seeds by soaking in alkali. J. Food Sci. 44:1319-1321
  3. Chibber, B. A. K., E. T. Mertz and J. D. Axtell. 1978. Effects of dehulling on tannin content, protein distribution, and quality of high and low tannin sorghum. J. Agric. Food Chem. 26:679-683
  4. Ahmed, A. E. 1991. Anti-nutritional role of dietary tannins in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). Ph.D. thesis, University of Newcastle UponTyne, UK
  5. Ahmed, A. E., R. Smithard and M. Ellis. 1991. Activities of enzymes of the pancreas, and the lumen and mucosa of the small intestine in growing broiler cockerels fed on tannincontaining diets. Br. J. Nutr. 65:189-197
  6. Armstrong, W. D., W. R. Featherston and J. C. Rogler. 1973. Influence of methionine and other dietary additions on the performance of chicks fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets. Poult. Sci. 52:1592-1599
  7. Kumar, V. A. V. Elangovan and A. B. Mandal. 2005. Utilization of reconstituted high-tannin sorghum in the diets of broiler chickens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:538-544
  8. Laurena, A. C., V. V. Garcia and E. M. T. Mendoza. 1986. Effects of soaking in aqueous acidic and alkali solutions on removal of polyphenols and in vitro digestibility of cowpea. Plant Foods Human Nutr. 36:107-118
  9. Gandhi, V. M., K. M. Cherian, M. J. Mulky and K. K. G. Menon. 1975. Utilisation of non-traditional indigenous oil seed meal. Part II: Studies with detoxified salseed meal. J. Oil Technol. Assoc. India 7:44-50
  10. Kadam, S. S. and R. R. Smithard. 1987. Effects of heat treatments on trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinating activities in winged bean. Plant Foods Human Nutr. 37:151-159
  11. Kamalak, A., O. Canbolat, Y. Gurbuz, O. Ozay and E. Ozkose. 2005. Chemical composition and its relationship to in vitro gas production of several tannin containing trees and shrub leaves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:203-208
  12. Choct, M. and R. J. Hughes. 1999. Chemical and physical characteristics of grains related to variability in energy and amino acid availability in poultry. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 50:689-702
  13. de Luman, B. and L. A. Salamat. 1980. Trypsin inhibitor activity in winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and the possible role of tannin. J. Sci. Food Agric. 28:533-536
  14. Eggum, B. O., L. Monoway, K. E. Knudsen, Bach, L. Munck and J. D. Axtell. 1983. Nutritional quality of sorghum and sorghum foods from Sudan. J. Cereal Sci. 1:127-134
  15. Elkin, R. G., J. C. Rogler and T. W. Sullivan. 1990. Comparative effects of dietary tannins in ducks, chicks and rats. Poult. Sci. 69:1685-1693
  16. Evers, A. D., L. O'Brien and A. B. Blakeney. 1999. Cereal structure and composition. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 50:629-650
  17. Mahmood, S., M. A. Khan, M. Sarwar, M. Nisa and W. S. Lee. 2007. Use of chemical treatments to reduce antinutritional effects of tannins in salseed meal: Effect on nutritional value and digestive enzymes of broilers. Livest. Sci. (submitted)
  18. Marquardt, R. R. 1989. Dietary effects of tannins vicine and covicine. Proc. of the first International Workshop on Antinutritional factors in Legume Seeds, Wageningen, Netherlands. pp. 141-155
  19. Mahmood, S., M. A. Khan, M. Sarwar and M. Nisa. 2006. Chemical treatments to reduce antinutritional factors in Salseed (Shorea robusta) Meal: Effect on nutrient digestibility in colostomized pullets and intact broilers. Poult. Sci. 85:2207-2215
  20. Mahmood, S. and R. Smithard. 1993. A comparison of effects of body weight and feed intake on digestion in broiler cockerels with effects of tannins. Br. J. Nutr. 70:701-709
  21. Mohammed, T. A. and O. M. Ali. 1988. Effect of wood ash extract treatment on the feeding value and utilization of high-tannin sorghum by broiler chicks. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 22:131-137
  22. Muller-Harvey, I., J. D. Reed and R. D. Hartley. 1987. Characterisation of phenolic compounds, including flavonoids and tannins, of ten Ethiopian browse species by high performance liquid chromatography. J. Sci. Food Agric. 39:1-14
  23. Ozkan, C. O. and M. Sahin. 2006.Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation with in vitro gas production of oak leaves supplemented with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1120-1126
  24. Mole, S., J. C. Rogler, C. T. Morel and C. G. Butler. 1990. Herbivore growth reduction by tannins: use of waldbauer ratio techniques and manipulation of salivary protein synthesis to elucidate mechanism of action. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 18:183-197
  25. Santos-Buelga, C. and A. Scalbert. 2000. Proanthocyanidins and tannin-like compounds nature, occurrence, dietary intake and effects on nutrition and health. J. Sci. Food Agric. 80:1094-1117<1094::AID-JSFA569>3.0.CO;2-1
  26. Sathe, S. K. and D. K. Salunkhe. 1981. Investigations on winged bean (Psophocarpus etragonolobus L.) proteins and antinutritional factors. J. Food Sci. 46:1389-1393
  27. Sievwright, C. A. and W. F. Shipe. 1986. Effect of storage conditions and chemical treatments on firmness, In vitro protein digestibility, condensed tannins, phytic acid and divalent cations of cooked black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). J. Food Sci. 51:982-987
  28. Reichert, R. D., S. E. Fleming and D. J. Schwab. 1980. Tannin deactivation and nutritional improvement of sorghum by anaerobic storage of $H_2O$, HCl, or NaOH treated grain. J. Agric. Food Chem. 28:824-829
  29. Salunkhe, D. K., J. K. Chavan and S. S. Kadam. 1990. Dietary tannins: Consequences and remedies. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA
  30. Rao, V. S. and K. M. Rao. 1986. Detaining of deoiled salseed (Shorea robusta) meal with sodium carbonate followed by washing with water. Indian Forester 112:253-260
  31. Price, M. L., S. V. Scoyoc and L. G. Butler. 1978. A critical evaluation of the vanillin reaction as an assay for tannin in sorghum grain. J. Agric. Food Chem. 26:214-1218
  32. Susmel, P., M. Spanghero, S. Marchetti and S. Moscardini. 1995. Trypsin inhibitory activity of raw soybean after incubation with rumen fluid. J. Sci. Food Agric. 67:441-445
  33. Swain, T. 1965. The tannins. Ch. 22. In: Plant Biochemistry (Ed. J. Bonner and J. E. V. Varner). Academic Press, London. p. 552
  34. Teeter, R. G., S. Satani, M. O. Smith and C. A. Hibberd. 1986. Detoxification of high tannin sorghum grains. Poult. Sci. 65:67-71
  35. Wah, C. S., K. Sharma and M. G. Jackson. 1977. Studies on various chemical treatment of salseed meal to remove or inactivate tannins. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 47:8-12
  36. Liu, K. and P. Markakis. 1989. An improved colorimetric method for determining anti-tryptic activity in soybean products. Cereal Chem. 66:415-422
  37. Kondo, M., K. Kita and H. Yokota. 2007. Ensiled or oven-dried green tea by-product as protein feedstuffs: effects of tannin on nutritive value in goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:880-886
  38. Mahmood, S., R. Smithard and M. Sarwar. 1997. Effects of salseed (Shorea robustal) tannins, restricted feed intake and age on relative pancreas weight and activity of digestive enzymes in male Broilers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 65:215-230
  39. Mitaru, B. N., R. D. Reichert and R. Blair. 1984. The binding of dietary protein by sorghum tannins in the digestive tract of pigs. J. Nutr. 114:1787-1796
  40. Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1984. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach (2nd ed.), McGraw-Hill, NY, USA
  41. Rana, K. K., M. Wadhwa and M. P. S. Bakshi. 2006. Seasonal variations in tannin profile of tree leaves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1134-1138

피인용 문헌

  1. Effort to explore the potential use of palmyrah fruit for functional food vol.119, pp.10, 2017,
  2. seed during fermentation : sensory characteristic and changes on anti nutritional compounds and mimosine level vol.102, pp.1755-1315, 2018,