Effect of Grinding Methods on Particle Size and Crystalline Structure of Copper Phthalocyanine

분쇄방법에 따른 구리프탈로시아닌 입자크기 및 결정구조 변화

  • Lee, Jeong Se (School of Biochemical Engineering, University of Ulsan) ;
  • Lee, Hak Sung (School of Biochemical Engineering, University of Ulsan)
  • 이정세 (울산대학교 생명화학공학부) ;
  • 이학성 (울산대학교 생명화학공학부)
  • Received : 2006.10.12
  • Accepted : 2007.01.02
  • Published : 2007.02.10


Crude copper phthalocyanine (Cupc) was synthesized by Wyler process, then grounded using various methods such as acid pasting, kneader, attritor and SC-mill. Particle size, shape and crystalline structure were compared and evaluated after particle size reductions. Cupcs prepared by acid pasting and kneader methods that are excellent manufacturing processes in industry were used as our standards. Particle properties of Cupcs prepared either by attritor or by SC-mill were compared with particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particle size analyzer and SEM were used to analyze the variation of particle sizes of Cupc with milling time. Particle size was initially decreased up to the 90 min of milling time, thereafter it reversely began to increase in case of SC-mill. Cupc obtained from dry milling with attritor displayed strong cohesion so that particle size was not possible to determine with particle size analyzer. However, the optimum milling time was indirectly approximated from the analysis of XRD peak intensity.


Supported by : 울산대학교


  1. A. W. Snow and W. R. Barger, In Phthalocyanines-Properties and Applications, VCH, New York, 341 (1989)
  2. R. A. Laudise, C. Kloc, P. G. Simpkins, and T. Siegrist, J. Cryst. Growth, 187, 449 (1998)
  3. M. Wojdyla, B. Derkowska, W. Bala, A. Bratkowski, and A. Korcala, Opt. Mater., 28, 1000 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2005.04.012
  4. Y. Lee, C. Hsiao, and R. Hsiao, Thin Solid Films, 468, 280 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2004.04.060
  5. T. F. Tadros, Solid-Liquid Dispersion, Academic Press, London, 186 (1987)
  6. Q. Zhang, H. B. Chen, Y. G. Liu, and D. Y. Huang, Dyes Pigments, 63, 11 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2003.12.012
  7. W. Herbst and K. Hunger, Industrial Organic Pigments, VCH, New York, 418 (1993)
  8. W. Pietsch and H. Rumpf, Chem. Ing. Tech., 39, 885 (1967) https://doi.org/10.1002/cite.330391502
  9. P. Gregory, High-Technology Applications of Organic Colorants, Plenum Press, New York, 759 (1991)
  10. R. Sarkar, S. K. Das, and G. Banerjee, Ceram. Int., 25, 485 (1999)
  11. D. W. Fuerstenau and A. Z. M. Abouzeid, Int. J. Miner. Process., 67, 161 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-7516(02)00039-X
  12. C. S. Suh, S. S. Park, K. S. Jung, J, Y, Lee, J. H. Park, and G. D. Lee, J. Korean Ind. Eng. Chem., 12, 750 (2001)
  13. 한봉희, X선 회절의 기초, 동명사, 234 (2003)
  14. S. Saha, S. J. Ghanawat, and R. D. Purohit, J. Mater. Sci., 41, 1939 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-2655-2
  15. N. B. McKeown, Phthalocyanine materials, Cambridge University Press, 2 (1998)
  16. K. Wihksne and A. E. Newkirk, J. Chem. Phys., 34, 2184 (1961) https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1731844
  17. C. Suryanarayana, Progress in Materials Science, 46, 1 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6425(99)00010-9