Seasonal Variation in Scrotal Circumference and Semen Characteristics of Black Bedouin and Black Bedouin-Damascus Crossbred Bucks

  • Kridli, R.T. (Dept. of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Tabbaa, M.J. (Dept. of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan) ;
  • Barakeh, F.S. (National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer)
  • Received : 2006.04.10
  • Accepted : 2006.06.20
  • Published : 2007.03.01


The objective of this study was to evaluate monthly variation in semen characteristics in Black Bedouin and Black Bedouin${\times}$Damascus crossbred bucks. Twenty one Black Bedouin Goat bucks (BG) and 20 $F_1$ Black Bedouin${\times}$Damascus crossbred goat bucks (CB) were used in the study. Animals were 2 to 5 years old at the beginning of the study. Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), scrotal circumference (SC) and semen samples were evaluated monthly for all bucks. Body weight, BCS and SC differed according to month of collection (p<0.0001). Body weight and BCS were greater in the spring and summer months while SC reached their highest values during the autumn months. No differences were detected between breeds with respect to semen characteristics with the exception of ejaculate volume (p<0.05) and ejaculate appearance (p=0.053) which were greater in CB than in BG bucks. With the exception of ejaculate appearance, all semen characteristics were influenced by month of collection (p<0.05). Semen concentration and motility were better during the late summer and autumn months than during the spring. The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa declined from its greatest values in the spring to its lowest values in the autumn. Results of the present study show no effects of goat breed on most of the studied parameters. In general, most semen quality parameters were better in both breeds during the autumn than the spring months. Minimal variation in semen quality was observed between the summer and autumn months indicating the ability to use bucks for semen collection and for natural breeding during both of these seasons.


  1. Barkawi, A. H., E. H. Elsayed, G. Ashour and E. Shehata. 2006. Seasonal changes in semen characteristics, hormonal profiles and testicular activity in Zaraibi goats. Small Rumin. Res. 66:209-213.
  2. Chemineau, P., Y. Cagnie, Y. Gue'rin, P. Orgeur and J. C. Vallet. 1991. Training manual on artificial insemination in sheep and goat. FAO. Rome.
  3. Corteel, J. M. 1977. Production, storage and insemination of goat semen. In: Proc. Management of Reproduction in Sheep and Goats Symposium, University of Wisconsin, pp. 41-57.
  4. Greyling, J. P. C. and J. A. N. Grobbelaar. 1983. Seasonal variation in semen quality of Boer and Angora goat rams using different collection techniques. South Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 13:250-252.
  5. Guney, O., O. Torun, O. Ozuyanık and N. Darcan. 2006. Milk production, reproductive and growth performances of Damascus goats under northern Cyprus conditions. Small Rumin. Res. 65:176-179.
  6. Perez, B. and E. Mateos. 1996. Effect of photoperiod on semen production and quality in bucks of Verata and Malaguena breeds. Small Rumin. Res. 22:163-168.
  7. Roca, J., E. Martinez, J. M. Vazquez and P. Coy. 1992. Characteristics and seasonal variations in the semen of Murciano-Granadina goats in the Mediterranean area. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 29:255-262.
  8. Wildt, D. V. 1992. Genetic resource bank for conserving wildlife species: justification, examples and becoming organised on a global basis. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 28:247-257.
  9. Taylor, R. E. and T. G. Field. 1998. Scientific Farm Animal Production. 6th Ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
  10. Al-Ghalban, A. M., M. J. Tabbaa and R. T. Kridli. 2004. Factors affecting semen characteristics and scrotal circumference of Damascus bucks. Small Rumin. Res. 53(1-2):141-149.
  11. Dickson, K. A. and L. M. Sanford. 2005. Breed diversity in FSH, LH, and testosterone regulation of testicular function and in libido of young adult rams on the southeastern Canadian prairies. Small. Rumin. Res. 56:189-203.
  12. Lincoln, G. A., C. E. Lincoln and A. S. McNeilly. 1990. Seasonal cycles in the blood plasma concentrations of FSH, inhibin and testosterone and testicular size in rams of wild, feral and domesticated breeds of sheep. J. Reprod. Fert. 88:623-633.
  13. Roca, J. 1989. Parametros reproductivos del macho cabrio de raza Murciano-Granadina. Estudio experimental (Reproductive parameters in male goats of Murciano-Granadina breed. An experimental study). Thesis, Veterinary School, University of Murcia, Spain.
  14. Franca, L. R., S. C. Becker-Silva and H. Chiarini-Garcia. 1999. The length of the cycle of seminiferous epithelium in goats (Capra hircus). Tissue Cell 31:274-280.
  15. Hossamo, H. L. 1984. Body condition scoring of fat-tail sheep and effects of scoring degree on productivity of the ewes. The Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands (ACSAD), Damascus, Syria.
  16. Pandey, R. P., S. N. Sinha, B. Singh and M. H. Akhtar. 1985. Characters of semen and fertility rate in Saanen and Barbari bucks. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 55:773-774.
  17. SAS Institute Inc. 1994. SAS/STAT User's Guide: Version 6. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC.
  18. Jordanian Ministry of Agriculture. 2004. Annual Report of the Animal Husbandry Department.
  19. Karagiannidis, A., S. Varsakeli and G. Karatzas. 2000. Characteristics and seasonal variations in the semen of Alpine, Saanen and Damascus goat bucks born and raised in Greece. Theriogenol. 53:1285-1293.
  20. Ali, B. H. and A. I. Mustafa. 1986. Semen characteristics of Nubian goats in the Sudan. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 12:63-68.
  21. Joshi, A., S. Bag, S. M. K. Naqvi, R. C. Sharma, P. S. Rawat and J. P. Mittal. 2001. Effect of short-term and long-term preservation on motion characteristics of Garole ram spermatozoa: A prolific microsheep breed of India. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1527-1533.
  22. Chowdhury, S. A., M. S. A. Bhuiyan and S. Faruk. 2002. Rearing Black Bengal goat under semi intensive management. 1. Physiology and reproductive performance. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:477-484.
  23. Bearden, H. J. and J. W. Fuquay. 1997. Applied animal reproduction. 4th Ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey
  24. Belibasaki, S. and S. Kouimtzis. 2000. Sexual activity and body and testis growth in prepubertal ram lambs of Friesland, Chios, Karagouniki and Serres dairy sheep in Greece. Small Rumin. Res. 37:109-113.
  25. Chemineau, P., B. Malpaux, J. A. Delegadillo, Y. Gue'rin, J. P. Ravault, J. Thimonier and J. Pelletier. 1992. Control of sheep and goat reproduction: use of light and melatonin. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 30:157-184.
  26. Mittal, J. P. and P. K. Ghosh. 1985. Characteristics of Parbastar breed of goats from Rajasthan desert. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 55:673-678.
  27. Buckrell, B. C., G. Spronk and F. Rodriguez. 1994. Collection and processing of ovine semen for fresh or frozen semen insemination. Theriogenology Handbook 0.3 (8/94). Society for Theriogenology, California, USA.

Cited by

  1. Effect of scrotal bifurcation on breeding soundness traits in Beetal bucks during summer season pp.1573-7438, 2019,