Genetic Diversity and Origin of Chinese Domestic Goats Revealed by Complete mtDNA D-loop Sequence Variation

  • Liu, R.Y. (College of Animal Science and Technology, Guizhou University) ;
  • Lei, C.Z. (College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University) ;
  • Liu, S.H. (College of Animal Science and Technology, Guizhou University) ;
  • Yang, G.S. (College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University)
  • Received : 2006.03.10
  • Accepted : 2006.08.22
  • Published : 2007.02.01


China has numerous native domestic goat breeds, but so far there has been no extensive study on genetic diversity, population demographic history, and origin of Chinese goats. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese goats, we analyzed the complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of 183 goats from 13 breeds. The haplotype diversity value found in each breed ranged from 0.9333 to 1.0000. The nucleotide diversity value ranged from 0.006337 to 0.025194. Our results showed that there were four mtDNA lineages (A, B, C and D), in which lineage A was predominant, lineage B was moderate, and lineages C and D were at low frequencies. Lineages C and D were observed only in the Tibetan breed. The results revealed multiple maternal origins of Chinese domestic goats. There was weaker geographical structuring in the 13 Chinese goat populations, which suggested that there existed high gene flow among goat populations caused by the extensive transportation of goats in the course of history.


Chinese Domestic Goat;mtDNA;D-loop;Genetic Diversity;Origin


  1. Jia, Y. H., X. W. Shi, C. S. Jian, W. S. Zhu, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Q. He, Z. L. Liao, Y. H. Yu and T. Q. Li. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism of Guizhou goat breeds. Zoology Res. 20(2):88-92.
  2. Kumar, S., K. Tamura, I. B. Jakobsen and M. Nei. 2001. MEGA2: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Software. Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.
  3. Odahara, S. H., J. Chung, S. H. Choi, S. L. Yu, S. Sasazaki, H. Mannen, C. S. Park and J. H. Lee. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Korean native goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19(4):482-485.
  4. Porter, V. 1996. Goats of the world. Farming Press, Ipswich, UK.
  5. Bandlet, H. J., P. Forster, B. C. Sykes and M. B. Richards. 1995. Mitochondrial portraits of human populations using median networks. Genetics. 141:743-753.
  6. Luikart, G., L. Giellly, L. Excoffier, J. D. Vigne, J. Bouuvet and P. Taberlet. 2001. Multiple maternal origins and weak phylogeographic structure in domestic goats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 98:5927-5932.
  7. Joshi, M. B., P. K. Rout, A. K. Mandal, C. Tyler-Smith, L. Singh and J. K. Thangara. 2003. Phylogeography and origin of Indian domestic goats. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 21:454-462.
  8. Pringle, H. 1998. Neolithic agriculture: reading the signs of ancient animal domestication. Science 282:1448.
  9. Mannen, H., Y. Nagata and S. T. Suji. 2001. Mitochondrial DNA reveal that domestic goat (Capra hircus) are genetically affected by two subspecies of bezoar (Capra aegagurus). Biochem. Genet. 39:145-154.
  10. Tu, Y. R. 1989. Sheep and Goat Breeds in China. Shanghai: Shanghai Scientific & Technical Puplishers. 3-4
  11. Chen, S. Y., Y. H. Su, S. F. Wu, T. Sha and Y. P. Zhang. 2005. Mitochondrial diversity and phylogeographic structure of Chinese domestic goats. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 37:804-814.
  12. Schneider, S., D. Roessli and L. Excoffier. Arlequin: A software for population genetic data analysis. Ver 2.000. Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
  13. Thompson, J. D., T. J. Gibson, F. Plewniak, F. Jeanmougin and D. G. Higgins. 1997. The Clustal-X windows interface:Flexible strategies for multiple sequences alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res.25:4876-4882.
  14. Jeon, G. J., H. Y. Chung, J. G. Choi, M. S. Lee, C. W. Lee, J. J. Park, J. M. Ha, H. K. Lee and H. H. Sung. 2005. Relationship between genetic variants of mitochondrial DNA and growth traits in Hanwoo cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18(3):301-307.
  15. Li, X. L., Y. P. Zhang, S. G. Chen, F. T. Zeng, X. P. Qiu and X. M. Liu. 1999. Study on the origin and differentiation of the goat based on the mtDNA diversity. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica. 30:313-319.
  16. Bradley, D. G., D. E. MacHugh, P. Cunningham and R. T. Loftus. 1996. Mitochondrial diversity and the origins of African and European cattle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 93:5131-5135.
  17. Zeder, M. A. and B. Hesse. 2000. The initial domestication of goats (Capra hircus) in the Zagros Mountain 10,000 years ago. Science 287:2254-2257.

Cited by

  1. Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species? vol.17, pp.1, 2008,
  2. Cytochrome b Genetic Diversity and Maternal Origin of Chinese Domestic Donkey vol.48, pp.7-8, 2010,
  3. Genetic diversity of Albanian goat breeds revealed by mtDNA sequence variation vol.28, pp.1, 2014,
  4. Genetic diversity and molecular phylogeography of Chinese domestic goats by large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis vol.41, pp.6, 2014,
  5. Genetic diversity of the Chinese goat in the littoral zone of the Yangtze River as assessed by microsatellite and mtDNA vol.8, pp.10, 2018,