Optimization of Solid State Fermentation of Mustard (Brassica campestris) Straw for Production of Animal Feed by White Rot Fungi (Ganoderma lucidum)

  • Misra, A.K. (Plant and Animal Relationship Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute) ;
  • Mishra, A.S. (Division of Animal Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute) ;
  • Tripathi, M.K. (Division of Animal Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute) ;
  • Prasad, R. (Division of Animal Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute) ;
  • Vaithiyanathan, S. (Division of Animal Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute) ;
  • Jakhmola, R.C. (Division of Animal Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute)
  • Received : 2005.07.17
  • Accepted : 2005.12.31
  • Published : 2007.02.01


The objective of the experiment was to determine the optimum cultural [moisture levels (55, 60 and 70%), days of fermentation (7, 14 and 21), temperature (25 and $35^{\circ}C$) of incubation)] and nutritional parameters (urea addition (0 and 2%) and variable levels of single super phosphate (0.25 and 0.50% SSP)) for bio-processing of the mustard (Brassica campestris) straw (MS) under solid-state fermentation (SSF) system. The performance of SSF was assessed in terms of favorable changes in cell wall constituents, protein content and in vitro DM digestibility of the MS. Sorghum based inoculum (seed culture) of Ganoderma lucidum to treat the MS was prepared. The 50 g DM of MS taken in autoclavable polypropylene bags was mixed with a pre-calculated amount of water and the particular nutrient in the straw to attained the desired levels of water and nutrient concentration in the substrate. A significant progressive increase in biodegradation of DM (p<0.001), NDF (p<0.01) and ADF (p<0.05) was observed with increasing levels of moisture. Among the cell wall constituents the loss of ADF fraction was greatest compared to that of NDF. The loss of DM increased progressively as the fermentation proceeded and maximum DM losses occurred at 28 days after incubation. The protein content of the treated MS samples increased linearly up to the day $21^{th}$ of the incubation and thereafter declined at day $28^{th}$, whereas the improvement in in vitro DM digestibility were apparent only up to the day $14^{th}$ of the incubation under SSF and there after it declined. The acid detergent lignin (ADL) degradation was slower during the first 7 days of SSF and thereafter increased progressively and maximum ADL losses were observed at the day $28^{th}$ of the SSF. The biodegradation of DM and ADL was not affected by the variation in incubation temperature. Addition of urea was found to have inhibitory effect on fungal growth. The effect of both the levels (0.25 and 0.50) of SSP addition in the substrate, on DM, NDF, ADF, cellulose and ADL biodegradation was similar. Similarly, the protein content and the in vitro DM digestibility remain unaffected affected due to variable levels of the SSP inclusion in the substrate. From the results it may be concluded that the incubation of MS with 60 percent moisture for 21 days at $35^{\circ}C$ with 0.25 percent SSP was most suitable for MS treatment with Ganoderma lucidum. Maximum delignification, enrichment in the protein content and improvement in in vitro DM digestibility were achieved by adopting this protocol of bioprocessing of MS.


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