Anti-adherence of Antibacterial Peptides and Oligosaccharides and Promotion of Growth and Disease Resistance in Tilapia

  • Peng, K.S. (College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University) ;
  • She, R.P. (College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Yang, Y.R. (College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhou, X.M. (College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Liu, W. (College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Wu, J. (State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences) ;
  • Bao, H.H. (College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Liu, T.L. (College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2006.03.23
  • Accepted : 2006.09.06
  • Published : 2007.04.01


Four hundred and fifty tilapias ($6.77{\pm}0.23$ g) were assigned randomly to six groups to evaluate the feasibility of the tested antibacterial peptides (ABPs) and oligosaccharides as substitutes for antibiotics. The control group was fed with a commercial tilapia diet; other five groups were fed with the same commercial diet supplemented with konjac glucomannan (KGLM), cluster bean galactomannan (CBGAM), and three animal intestinal ABPs derived from chicken, pig and rabbit at 100 mg/kg respectively. After 21 days of feeding, growth, disease resistance, and in vivo anti-adherence were determined. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of tested agents on adhesion of Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (A.vbs) strain BJCP-5 to tilapia enteric epithelia in vitro was assessed by cell-ELISA system. As a result, the tested agents supplemented at 100 mg/kg show significant benefit to tilapia growth and disease resistance (p<0.05), and the benefit may be correlated with their interfering in the contact of bacteria with host mucosal surface. Although none of the tested agents did inhibit the growth of BJCP-5 in tryptic soy broth at $100{\mu}g/ml$, all of them did inhibit the adhesion of A.vbs to tilapia enteric epithelia in vivo and in vitro. In vitro mimic assays show that three ABPs at low concentrations of $25{\mu}g/ml$ and $2.5{\mu}g/ml$ have the reciprocal dose-dependent anti-adherence effect. The inhibition of ABPs may be correlated with a cation bridging and/or receptor-ligand binding, but not with hydrophobicity. The KGLM and CBGAM inhibited the adherence of BJCP-5 to tilapia enteric epithelia with dose-dependent manner in vitro, and this may be through altering bacterial hydrophobicity and interfering with receptor-ligand binding. Our results indicate that the anti-adherence of the tested ABPs and oligosaccharides may be one of the mechanisms in promoting tilapia growth and resistance to A.vbs.


Antibacterial Peptides;Oligosaccharides;Anti-adhesion;Growth;Disease Resistance;Tilapia


Supported by : China National Science Foundation


  1. Alwan, A., T. Deignan, M. O'Sullivan, J. Kelly and C. O'Farrelly. 1998. Quantitative assay of Salmonella adherence to intestinal epithelia: A new method for assessing novel intervention products. J. Microbiol. Methods 33:163-170.
  2. Bornet, F. R. J. and F. Brouns. 2002. Immune-stimulating and gut health-promoting properties of shortchain fructooligosaccharides. Nutr. Rev. 60(1):326-334.
  3. Hatha, M., A. A. Vivekanandhan, G. J. Joice and Christol. 2005. Antibiotic resistance pattern of motile aeromonads from farm raised fresh water fish. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 98:131-134.
  4. Lee, M. H., H. J. Lee and P. D. Ryu. 2001. Public health risks: chemical and antibiotic residues. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14(3):402-413.
  5. Ma, W. M., R. P. She, F. Z. Peng, H. Jin and Y. X. Hu. 2004. The preparation and partial characterization of an antibacterial peptide from the small intestine of pig. Sci. Tech. Eng. 3:202-206 (in chinese).
  6. Ofek, I., D. L. Hasty and N. Sharon. 2003. Anti-adhesion therapy of bacterial diseases: prospects and problems. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 38:181-191.
  7. Selsted, M. E., S. I. Miller, A. H. Henschen and A. J. Ouellette. 1992. Enteric defensins: antibiotic peptide components of intestinal host defense. J. Cell Biol. 118:929-936.
  8. Perez, P. F., Y. Minnaard, E. A. Disalvo and G. L. De Antoni. 1998. Surface properties of biofidobacterial strains of human origin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64(1):21-26.
  9. Doyle, R. J. 2000. Contribution of the hydrophobic effect to microbial infection. Microbes Infect. 2:391-400.
  10. Van den Bogaard, A. E. and E. E. Stobberingh. 2000. Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics links between animals and humans. Int. J. Antimicrobial Agents 14:327-335.
  11. Peng, K. S. and R. P. She. 2005. Isolation and identification of Aeromonas species from red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus$\times$Oreochromis niloticus. hybrid) and drug sensitivity test. Chin J. Vet. Med. 41(1):54-56. (in Chinese).
  12. Schifferli, D. M. and E. H. Beachey. 1988. Bacterial adhesion: modulation by antibiotics which perturb protein synthesis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32(11):1603-1608.
  13. Shibl, A. M. 1985. Effect of antibiotics on adherence of microorganisms to epithelial cell surfaces. Rev. Infect Dis. 7:51-65.
  14. Hancock, R. E. and R. Lehrer. 1998. Cationic peptides: a new source of antibiotics. Trends Biotechnol. 16:82-88.
  15. Klotz, S. A., N. K. Gaur, J. Rauceo, D. F. Lake, Y. Park, K. S. Hahm and P. N. Lipke. 2004. Inhibition of adherence and killing of Candida albicans with a 23-Mer peptide (Fn/23) with dual antifungal properties. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48(11):4337-4341.
  16. Mata, L. G., D. Drake and R. J. Doyle. 1997. Modification of surface properties of oral streptococci by $\alpha$-1, 6-glucans, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 8:295-302.
  17. Suk, Y. O. 2004. Interaction of breed-by-chitosan supplementation on growth and feed efficiency at different supplementing ages in broiler chickens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(12):1705-1711.
  18. Cheng, Y. H., D. N. Lee, C. M. Wen and C. F. Weng. 2004. Effects of beta-glucan supplementation on lymphocyte proliferation, macrophage chemotaxis and specific immune responses in broilers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(8):1145-1149.
  19. Wilson, M., R. McNab and B. Henderson. 2002. Bacterial disease mechanisms, an introduction to cellular microbiology. Cambridge university press, Cambridge, UK. pp. 360-365.
  20. Guerra, N. P., A. B. Araujo, A. M. Barrera, A. T. Agrasar, C. L. Macias, J. Carballo and L. Pastrana. 2005. Antimicrobial activity of nisin adsorbed to surfaces commonly used in the food industry. J. Food Prot. 68(5):1012-1019.
  21. Li, J., J. J. Xing, D. F. Li, X. Wang, L. D. Zhao, S. Q. Lv and D. S. Huang. 2005. Effects of $\beta$-glucan extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on humoral and cellular immunity in weaned piglets. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 59(5):303-312.
  22. Cao, B. H., Y. Karasawa and Y. M. Guo. 2005. Effects of green tea polyphenols and fructo-oligosaccharides in semi-purified diets on broilers' performance and caecal microflora and their metabolites. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18(1):85-89.
  23. Ochoa, T. J., M. Noguera-Obenza, F. Ebel, C. A. Guzman, H. F. Gomez and T. G. Cleary. 2003. Lactoferrin impairs type III secretory system function in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 71(9):5149-5155.
  24. Sano, H., K. Shibasaki, T. Matsukubo and Y. Takaesu. 2001. Comparison of the activity of four chitosan derivatives in reducing initial adherence of oral bacteria onto tooth surfaces. Bull. Tokyo Dent. Coll. 42(4):243-249.
  25. Mack, D. R. and P. M. Sherman. 1999. Hydrophobicity and the gastrointestinal tract: methods of determination, its source and implications for bacterial adherence. Colloids and Surfaces B:Biointerfaces 15:355-363.
  26. Atkinson, B. A. 1980. Species, incidence trends of susceptibility of antibiotics in the Unites States and minimum inhibitory concentrations. In: (Ed. V. Lorian) Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine, 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. p. 607.
  27. Austin, B. and D. A. Austin. 1999. Bacterial Fish Pathogens, Disease of Farmed and Wild Fish (3rd revised edition). Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK. pp. 19-22, pp. 63-80, pp. 205- 230
  28. Islam, D., L. Bandholtz, J. Nilsson, H. Wigzell, B. Christrnsson, B. Agerberth and G. Gudmundsson. 2001. Downregulation of bactericidal peptides in enteric infections: A novel immune escape mechanism with bacterial DNA as potential regulator. Nat. Med. 7(2):180-185.
  29. Tang, Z. R., Y. L. Yin, C. M. Nyachoti, R. L. Huang, T. J. Li, C. Yang, X. J. Yang, J. Gong, J. Peng, D. S. Qi, J. J. Xing, Z. H. Sun and M. Z. Fan. 2005. Effect of dietary supplementation of chitosan and galacto-mannan-oligosaccharide on serum parameters and the insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA expression in early-weaned piglets. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 28(4):430-441.
  30. Dvorska, J. E. and P. F. Surai. 2004. Protective effect of modified glucomannans against changes in antioxidant systems of quail egg and embryo due to aurofusarin consumption. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(3):434-440.
  31. Sharon, N. 2006. Carbohydrates as future anti-adhesion drugs for infectious diseases. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1760(4):527-537.