DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Environmental Sustainability and Social Desirability Issues in Pig Feeding

  • Yang, T.S. (Division of Applied Biology, Animal Technology Institute Taiwan)
  • Published : 2007.04.01

Abstract

Feeding pigs used to be a means of managing domestic resources that may otherwise have been wasted into valuable animal protein. Feeding pigs thus was a form of husbandry. Following recent rapid industrial development, pig rearing has changed from extensive to intensive, but this transformation has been associated with major concerns. The concentration of large amounts of pig manure in small arrears is environmentally hazardous. Moreover, high densities of animals in intensive production systems also impose a health threat for both animals and humans. Furthermore, the use of growth promoters and preventive medicines for higher production efficiencies, such as in-feed antibiotics, also induces microbial resistance thus affects human therapeutics. In addition, consumers are questioning the ethics of treating animals in intensive production systems. Animal welfare, environmental and bio-safe issues are re-shaping the nature of pig production systems. Feeding pigs thus involves not only the consideration of economic traits, but also welfare traits and environmental traits. Thus, a focus on technological feasibility, environmental sustainability and social desirability is essential for successful feeding operations. Feeding pigs now involves multiple projects with different sustainability goals, but goal conflicts exist since no pattern or scenario can fulfill all sustainability goals and the disagreements are complicated by reduced or even no use of in-feed antibiotics. Thus it is difficult to feed pigs in a manner that meets all goals of high quality, safe product, eco- and bio-sustainability, animal welfare and profit. A sustainable pig production system thus requires a prioritization of goals based on understanding among consumers, society and producers and needs to view from both a local and global perspective.

Keywords

Pig Feeding;Environmental Sustainability;Social Desirability

References

  1. Aarestrup, F. M., F. Bager and J. S. Andersen. 2000. Association between the use of avilamycin for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers: epidemiological study and changes over time. Microb. Drug. Resist. 6:71-75. https://doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2000.6.71
  2. Aarestrup, F. M., H. Kruse, E. Tast, A. M. Hammerum and L. B. Jensen. 2000. Associations between the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers and pigs in Denmark, Finland, and Norway. Microb. Drug. Resist. 6:63-70. https://doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2000.6.63
  3. Adjiri-Awere, A. and T. A. Van Lunen. 2005. Subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in pork production: Risks and alternatives. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 85:117-130. https://doi.org/10.4141/A04-041
  4. Brogden, K. A., M. Ackermann, P. B. McCray, Jr. and B. F. Tack. 2003. Antimicrobial peptides in animals and their role in host defences. Internat. J. Antimicrobiol. Agents. 22:465-478. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-8579(03)00180-8
  5. Estrada, A., M. D. Drew and A. Van Kessel. 2001. Effect of the dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharides and bifidobacterium longum to early-weaned pigs on performance and fecal bacterial populations. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 81:141-148. https://doi.org/10.4141/A00-037
  6. Franco, L. D., M. Fondevila, M. B. Lobera and C. Castrillo. 2005. Effect of combinations of organic acids in weaned pig diets on microbial species of digestive tract contents and their response on digestibility. J. Anim. Phy. Anim. Nutr. 89:88-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2005.00553.x
  7. Grieshop, C. M., D. E. Reese and G. C. Fahey. Jr. 2001. Nonstarch polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in swine nutrition. In: Swine Nutrition (Ed. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. p. 107.
  8. Hamscher, G., H. T. Pawelzick, S. Sczesny, H. Nau and J. Hartung. 2003. Antibiotics in dust originating from a pig-fattening farm: a new source of health hazard for farmers? Environ. Health Perspect. 111:1590-1594. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.6288
  9. Kornegay, E. T., J. L. Evans and V. Ravindran. 1994. Effects of diet acidity and protein level or source of calcium on the performance, gastrointestinal content measurements, bone measurements, and carcass composition of gilt and barrow weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2670-2680. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.72102670x
  10. Meunier-Salaun, M. C., S. A. Edwards and S. Robert. 2001. Effect of dietary fibre on the behaviour and health of the restricted fed sow. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 90:53-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00196-1
  11. Pluske, J. R., D. Zorica, W. P. David, B. P. Mullan and D. J. Hampson. 1998. Confirmation of the role of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates in the expression of swine dysentery in pigs after experimental infection. J. Nutr. 128:1737-1744. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/128.10.1737
  12. Reddy, K. V., R. D. Yedery and C. Aranha. 2004. Antimicrobial peptides: premises and promises. Int. J. Antimicrob Agents. 24:536-547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2004.09.005
  13. Shihata, A. and N. P. Shah. 2002. Influence of addition of proteolytic strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus to commercial ABT starter cultures on texture of yoghurt, exopolysaccharide production and survival of bacteria. Int. Dairy J. 12:765-772. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(02)00071-7
  14. Sutton, A. L. and B. T. Richert. 2004. Nutrition and feed management strategies to reduce nutrient excretions and odors from swine manure. Water Sci. Technol. 49:397-404. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2004.0780
  15. Tzortzis, G., A. K. Goulas and G. R. Gibson. 2005. Synthesis of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides using whole cells of a novel strain, Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171. Appl. Microbio. Biotech. 68:412-416. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-005-1919-0
  16. Yu, I. T., J. J. Su, J. F. Wu, S. L. Lee, C. C. Ju and H. T. Yen. 2005. Dietary modification for reducing electrical conductivity of piggery wastewater. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:0343-1347 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.1343
  17. McGlone, J. J. and D. L. Anderson. 2002. Synthetic maternal pheromone stimulates feeding behavior and weight gain in weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:3179-3183. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.80123179x
  18. Chapin, A., A. Rule, K. Gibson, T. Buckley and K. Schwab. 2005. Airborne multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from a concentrated swine feeding operation. Environ. Health Perspect. 113:137-142. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7473
  19. Su, J. J., B. Y. Liu and Y. C. Chang. 2003. Emission of greenhouse gas from livestock waste and wastewater treatment in Taiwan. Agri. Eco. Enviro. 95:253-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(02)00090-7
  20. Correa-Matos, N. J., S. M. Donovan, R. E. Isaacson, H. Rex Gaskins, B. A. White and K. A. Tappenden. 2003. Fermentable fiber reduces recovery time and improves intestinal function in piglets following salmonella typhimurium infection. J. Nutr. 133:1845-1852. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.6.1845
  21. Doron, S. and S. L. Gorbach. 2006. Probiotics: their role in the treatment and prevention of disease. Expert Rev. Anti-infective Therapy. 4:261-275. https://doi.org/10.1586/14787210.4.2.261
  22. Hardy, B. 1999. A world without growth promoters. Concepts Pig Sci. The first annual turtle lake science conf., Nottingham, UK.
  23. Kim, Y. Y., D. Y. Kil, H. K. Oh and I. K. Han. 2005. Acidifier as an alternative material of antibiotics in animal feed. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1048-1060. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.1048
  24. Tilman, D., K. G. Cassman, P. A. Matson, R. Naylor and S. Polasky. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:671-677. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01014
  25. Cromwell, G. L. 2002. Why and how antibiotics are used in swine production. Anim. Biotech. 13:7-27. https://doi.org/10.1081/ABIO-120005767
  26. Shah, N. P. and R. R. Ravula. 2000. Influence of water activity of fermentation, organic acids production and viability of yogurt and probiotic bacteria. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 55:127-131.
  27. Dave, R. I. and N. P. Shah. 1998. Ingredient supplementation effects on viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurt. J. Daity Sci. 81:2804-2816.
  28. Koopmans, S. J., A. C. Guzik, J. van der Meulen, R. Dekker, J. Kogut, B. J. Kerr and L. L. Southern. 2006. Effects of supplemental l-tryptophan on serotonin, cortisol, intestinal integrity, and behavior in weanling piglets J. Anim. Sci. 84:963-971. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.844963x
  29. Yang, T. S. and J. H. Lin. 1997. Variation of heart size and its correlation with growth performance and vascular space in domestic pigs. Anim. Sci. 64:523-528. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800016155
  30. Bird, A. R., T. Hayakawa, Y. Marsono, J. M. Gooden, I. R. Record, R. L. Correll and D. L. Topping. 2000. Coarse brown rice increases fecal and large bowel short-chain fatty acids and starch but lowers calcium in the large bowel of pigs. J. Nutr. 130:1780-1787. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/130.7.1780
  31. Durmic, Z., D. W. Pethick, B. P. Mullan, J. M. Accioly, H. Schulze and D. J. Hampson. 2002. Evaluation of large-intestinal parameters associated with dietary treatments designed to reduce the occurrence of swine dysentery. Br. J. Nutr. 88:159-169. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2002607
  32. Hollis, G. R., S. D. Carter, T. R. Cline, T. D. Crenshaw, G. L. Cromwell, G. M. Hill, S. W. Kim, A. J. Lewis, D. C. Mahan, P. S. Miller, H. H. Stein and T. L. Veum. 2005. Effects of replacing pharmacological levels of dietary zinc oxide with lower dietary levels of various organic zinc sources for weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2123-2129. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.8392123x
  33. Strid Eriksson, I., H. Elmquist, S. Stern and T. Nybrant. 2005. Environmental systems analysis of pig production - the lmpact of feed choice. Internat. J. Life Cycle Assess. 10:143-154. https://doi.org/10.1065/lca2004.06.160
  34. Kanis, E., K. H. De Greef, A. Hiemstra and J. A. van Arendonk. 2005. Breeding for societally important traits in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 83:948-957. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.834948x
  35. Lenis, N. P. and A. W. Jongbloed. 1999. New technologies in low pollution swine diets: diet manipulation and use of synthetic amino acids, phytase and phase feeding for reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion and ammonia emission- Review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12:305-327. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1999.305
  36. Li, Y. Z., B. J. Kerr, M. T. Kidd and H. W. Gonyou. 2006. Use of supplementary tryptophan to modify the behavior of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84:212-220. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.841212x
  37. Willig, S., D. Losel and R. Claus. 2005. Effects of resistant potato starch on odor emission from feces in swine production units. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:1173-1178. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048658+
  38. Duggan, C., J. Gannon and W. A. Walker. 2002. Protective nutrients and functional foods for the gastrointestinal tract. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 75:789-808. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/75.5.789
  39. Taylor, D. J. 1999. The responsible use of antibiotics in pig medicine. Pig J. 43:170-187.
  40. Yang, T. S. 2006. Invited commentary: Size concerns regarding pig hearts for xenotransplantation. Xenotrans. 13: 12-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3089.2005.00269.x
  41. Han, I. K. and J. H. Lee. 2000. The role of synthetic amino acids in monogastric animal production. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:543-560. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2000.543
  42. Montagne, L., F. S. Cavaney, D. J. Hampson, J. P. Lalles and J. R. Pluske. 2004. Effect of diet composition on postweaning colibacillosis in piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 82:2364-2374 https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8282364x
  43. Poulsen, H. D. 1989. Zinc oxide for weaned pigs. In : Proc. 40th Annu. Mtg. Eur. Assoc. Anim. Prod., Dublin, Ireland, pp. 8-10.
  44. Raghupathy, P., B. S. Ramakrishna, S. P. Oommen, M. S. Ahmed, G. Priyaa, J. Dziura, G. P. Young and H. J. Binder. 2006. Amylase-resistant starch as adjunct to oral rehydration therapy in children with diarrhea. J. Pediatr Gastroenterol. Nutr. 42:362-368. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.mpg.0000214163.83316.41
  45. Tuohy, K. M., S. Kolida, A. M. Lustenberger and G. R. Gibson. 2001. The prebiotic effects of biscuits containing partially hydrolysed guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharides-a human volunteer study. Br. J. Nutr. 86:341-348. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2001394
  46. Ganz, T. 2003. Defensins: antimicrobial peptides of innate immunity. Nature Rev. Immuno. 3:710-720. https://doi.org/10.1038/nri1180
  47. Zhang, G., C. R. Ross and F. Blecha. 2000. Porcine antimicrobial peptides: New prospects for ancient molecules of host defense. Vet. Res. 31:277-296. https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2000121
  48. Kerr, B. J., J. T. Yen, J. A. Nienaber and R. A. Easter. 2003. Influences of dietary protein level, amino acid supplementation and environmental temperature on performance, body composition, organ weights and total heat production of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1998-2007. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.8181998x
  49. Seveno, N. A., D. Kallifidas, K. Smalla, J. D. van Elsas, J. M. Collard, A. D. Karagouni and E. M. H. Wellington. 2002. Occurrence and reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. Rev. Med. Microbio. 13:15-27. https://doi.org/10.1097/00013542-200201000-00002
  50. Fairbrother, J. M., E. Nadeau and C. L. Gyles. 2005. Escherichia coli in postweaning diarrhea in pigs: an update on bacterial types, pathogenesis, and prevention strategies. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 6:17-39. https://doi.org/10.1079/AHR2005105
  51. Holt, J. P., L. J. Johnston, S. K. Baidoo and G. C. Shurson. 2006. Effects of a high-fiber diet and frequent feeding on behavior, reproductive performance, and nutrient digestibility in gestating sows. J. Anim. Sci. 84:946-955. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.844946x
  52. Stern, S., U. Sonesson, S. Gunnarsson, I. Oborn, K. I. Kumm and T. Nybrant. 2005. Sustainable development of food production: a case study on scenarios for pig production. Ambio. 34:402-407. https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447(2005)034[0402:SDOFPA]2.0.CO;2
  53. Brown, I., M. Warbhrst, J. Arcot, M. Playne, R. J. Illman and D. L. Topping. 1997. Fecal numbers of bifidobacteria are higher in pigs fed Bifidobacterium longum with a high amylase cornstarch than with a low amylase comstarch. J. Nutr. 127:1822-1827. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/127.9.1822
  54. Verstegen, M. W. A. and B. A. Williams. 2002. Alternatives to the use of antibiotics as growth fromoters for monogastric animals. Anim. Biotechnol. 13:113-127. https://doi.org/10.1081/ABIO-120005774
  55. Yang, T. S., Y. L. Chang and C. K. Yen. 1997. Haemoperfusion treatment in pigs experimentally intoxicated by paraquat. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 16:709-715. https://doi.org/10.1177/096032719701601203
  56. Basset-Mens, C. and H. M. G. van der Werf. 2005. Scenario-based environmental assessment of farming systems: the case of pig production in France. Agri. Eco. Environ. 105:127-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2004.05.007
  57. Shu, Q., F. Qu and H. S. Gill. 2001. Probiotic treatment using bifidobacterium lactis HN019 reduces weanling diarrhea associated with rotavirus and escherichia coli infection in a piglet model. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 33:171-177. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200108000-00014
  58. Strid Eriksson, I. 2004. Environmental systems analysis of pig production-development and application of tools for evaluation of the environmental impact of feed choice. Doctoral thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala.
  59. Ettle, T. and F. X. Roth. 2005. Dietary preferences for feeds varying in threonine concentration by the piglet. Physiol. Behav. 85(3):289-295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.04.017
  60. ISO 14045. 1999. Environmental Management Standard-Life Cycle Assessment-Life Cycle Interpretation 1999 ISO, Geneva
  61. Knowlton, K. F., J. S. Radcliffe, C. L. Novak and D. A. Emmerson. 2004. Animal management to reduce phosphorus losses to the environment. J. Anim. Sci. 82:E173-E195. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8213_supplE173x
  62. Losel, D. and R. Claus. 2005. Dose-dependent effects of resistant potato starch in the diet on intestinal skatole formation and adipose tissue accumulation in the pig. J. Vet. Med. A. Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med. 52:209-212. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0442.2005.00716.x
  63. Apple, J. K., E. B. Kegley, C. V. Maxwell, Jr., L. K. Rakes, D. Galloway and T. J. Wistuba. 2005. Effects of dietary magnesium and short-duration transportation on stress response, postmortem muscle metabolism, and meat quality of finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 83:1633-1645. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.8371633x
  64. Compagnolo, E. R., K. R. Johnson, A. Karpati, C. S. Rubin, D. W. Kolpin, M. T. Meyer, J. E. Esteban, R. W. Currier, K. Smith, K. M. Thu and M. McGeehin. 2002. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations. Sci. Total Environ. 299:89-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00233-4
  65. Crittenden, R., S. Karppinen, S. Ojanen, M. Tenkanen, R. Fagerstrom, J. Matto, M. Saarela, T. Mattila-Sandholm and K. Poutanen. 2002. In vitro fermentation of cereal dietary fibre carbohydrates by probiotic and intestinal bacteria. J. Sci. Food Agri. 82:781-789. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1095
  66. Davis, M. E., C. V. Maxwell, D. C. Brown, B. Z. de Rodas, Z. B. Johnson, E. B. Kegley, D. H. Hellwig and R. A. Dvorak. 2002. Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharides and(or) pharmacological additions of copper sulfate on growth performance and immunocompetence of weanling and growing/finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2887-2894. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.80112887x
  67. Krapac, I. G., W. S. Dey, W. R. Roy, C. A. Smyth, E Storment, S. L. Sargent and J. D. Steele. 2002. Impacts of swine manure pits on ground water quality. Environ. Pollut. 120:475-492. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00115-X
  68. Wong, J. M., R. de Souza, C. W. Kendall, A. Emam and D. J. Jenkins. 2006. Colonic health: fermentation and short chain fatty acids. J. Clin.Gastroenterol. 40:235-243. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004836-200603000-00015
  69. Han, I. K., J. H. Lee, X. S. Piao and L. Defa. 2001. Feeding and management system to reduce environmental pollution in swine production. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:432-444. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.432
  70. Kritas, S. K. and R. B. Morrison. 2005. Evaluation of probiotics as a substitute for antibiotics in a large pig nursery. Vet. Rec. 156:447-448. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.156.14.447
  71. Nahm, K. H. 2003. Influences of fermentable carbohydrates on shifting nitrogen excretion and reducing ammonia emission of pigs. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33:165-186. https://doi.org/10.1080/10643380390814523
  72. Olsson, V. and J. Pickova. 2005. The influence of production systems on meat quality, with emphasis on pork. Ambio. 34:338-343. https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447(2005)034[0338:TIOPSO]2.0.CO;2
  73. Pluske, J. R., P. M. Siba, W. P. David, D. Zorica, B. P. Mullan and D. J. Hampson. 1996. The incidence of swine dysentery in pigs can be reduced by feeding diets that limit the amount of fermentable substrate entering the large intestine. J. Nutr. 126:2920-2933.
  74. Zhang, G., H. H. Y. Hiroshi, W. Hua, R. R. Christopher, T. Deryl and B. Frank. 1999. Cloning and characterization of the gene for a new epithelial beta-defensin. Genomic structure, hromosomal localization, and evidence for its constitutive expression. J. Biol. Chem. 274:24031-24037. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.274.34.24031
  75. Mantovi, P., G. Bonazzi, E. Maestri and N. Marmiroli. 2003. Accumulation of copper and zinc from liquid manure in agricultural soils and crop plants. Plant and Soil. 250:249-257. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022848131043

Cited by

  1. Age-related changes in semen quality characteristics and expectations of reproductive longevity in Duroc boars vol.81, pp.4, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2010.00753.x
  2. Investigating the gap between citizens' sustainability attitudes and food purchasing behaviour: empirical evidence from Brazilian pork consumers vol.35, pp.4, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2010.00978.x
  3. Consumer attitudes towards sustainability aspects of food production: Insights from three continents vol.28, pp.3-4, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2012.658836