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Effects of Non-protein Energy Intake on Whole Body Protein Synthesis, Nitrogen Retention and Glucose Turnover in Goats

  • Fujita, Tadahisa ;
  • Kajita, Masahiro ;
  • Sano, Hiroaki
  • Received : 2006.04.23
  • Accepted : 2006.08.30
  • Published : 2007.04.01

Abstract

The responses of whole body protein and glucose kinetics and of nitrogen (N) metabolism to non-protein energy intake (NPEI) were determined using an isotope dilution approach and measurement of N balance in three adult male goats. The diets containing 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times ME maintenance requirement, with fixed intake of CP (1.5 times maintenance) and percentage of hay (33%), were fed twice daily for each 21 d experimental period. After an adaptation period of 11 d, N balance was determined over 3 d. On day 17, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and glucose irreversible loss rate (ILR) were determined during the absorptive state by a primed-continuous infusion of [$^2H_5$]phenylalanine, [$^2H_2$]tyrosine, [$^2H_4$]tyrosine and [$^{13}C_6$]glucose, with simultaneous measurements of plasma concentrations of metabolites and insulin. Ruminal characteristics were also measured at 6 h after feeding over 3 d. Nitrogen retention tended to increase (p<0.10) with increasing NPEI, although digestible N decreased linearly (p<0.05). Increasing NPEI decreased (p<0.01) ammonia N concentration, but increased acetate (p<0.05) and propionate (p<0.05) concentrations in the rumen. Despite decreased plasma urea N concentration (p<0.01), increased plasma tyrosine concentration (p<0.05), and trends toward increased plasma total amino N (p<0.10) and phenylalanine concentrations (p<0.10) were found in response to increasing NPEI. Increasing NPEI increased ILR of both glucose (p<0.01) and phenylalanine (p<0.05), but did not affect ($p{\geq}0.10$) that of tyrosine. Whole body protein synthesis increased (p<0.05) in response to increasing NPEI, resulting from increased utilization rate for protein synthesis (p<0.05) and unchanged hydroxylation rate of phenylalanine ($p{\geq}0.10$). These results suggest that increasing NPEI may enhance WBPS and glucose turnover at the absorptive state and improve the efficiency of digestible N retention in goats, with possibly decreased ammonia and increased amino acid absorption. In addition, simultaneous increases in WBPS and glucose ILR suggest stimulatory effect of glucose availability on WBPS, especially when sufficient amino acid is supplied.

Keywords

Protein Synthesis;Phenylalanine Metabolism;Glucose Metabolism;Energy Intake;Stable Isotope;Goat

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : Educational Ministry of Japan