Effect of Beef Growth Type on Cooking Loss, Tenderness, and Chemical Composition of Pasture- or Feedlot-developed Steers

  • Brown, A.H. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Camfield, P.K. (Oklahoma Panhandle State University) ;
  • Rowe, C.W. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Rakes, L.Y. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Pohlman, F.W. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Johnson, Z.B. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Tabler, G.T. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas) ;
  • Sandelin, B.A. (Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas)
  • Received : 2006.09.27
  • Accepted : 2007.04.07
  • Published : 2007.11.01


Steers (n = 335) of known genetic background from four fundamentally different growth types were subjected to two production systems to study differences in cooking loss (CL), tenderness, and chemical composition. Growth types were animals with genetic potential for large mature weight-late maturing (LL), intermediate mature weight-late maturing (IL), intermediate mature weight -early maturing (IE), and small mature weight-early maturing (SE). Each year, in a nine-year study, calves of each growth type were weaned and five steers of each growth type were developed on pasture or feedlot and harvested at approximately 20 and 14 mo of age, respectively. Data collected were CL and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) for the Longissimus dorsi (LM), Psoas major (PS), and Quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles. Chemical composition was also determined from the right fore- and hindquarter. Data were analyzed using least squares analysis of variance for unequal subclass numbers. The beef growth $type{\times}production$ system interaction was significant for CL and WBS of the LM and ash in the lean trim of the forequarter. Growth types of LL and IL had greater (p<0.05) mean percentage CL in the PS and QF muscles than did IE and SE steers. Growth type LL had the highest (p<0.05) mean for both moisture and protein in the fore- and hindquarters; while SE had the lowest numerical mean value for moisture and protein in the fore- and hindquarters. Shear force of the PS did not differ (p>0.05) among steers of the four growth types. Increasing challenges to the cattle feeding industry may dictate that pasture development play a larger role in future production regimes. Producers should strive to match genetic growth type with available resources in order to remain viable and continue producing a quality product.


Feeding Regimen;Growth Type;Tenderness;Chemical Composition


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