- Volume 20 Issue 11
DOI QR Code
Study on Changes in Racehorses' Metabolites and Exercise-related Hormones before and after a Race
- Yoo, In-Sang (Department of Animal Science and Environment, Konkuk University) ;
- Lee, Hong-Gu (School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University) ;
- Yoon, Sei-Young (Seoul Racecourse Trainer's Association) ;
- Hong, Hee-Ok (Department of Animal Science and Environment, Konkuk University) ;
- Lee, Sang-Rak (Department of Animal Science and Environment, Konkuk University)
- Received : 2007.03.23
- Accepted : 2007.06.02
- Published : 2007.11.01
Physiological changes in thoroughbred racehorses during the race were investigated by measuring concentrations of metabolites and exercise-related hormones before and after a race. The conversion point from anaerobic to aerobic exercise during the race was estimated subsequently. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 53 thoroughbreds at different times -three h before and 45 min after- for measuring the concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), lactate, uric acid, ammonia, insulin, adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol according to the race distance. In accordance with the race distance, each metabolite increased in concentration compared with the level before the race. The level of glucose, in particular, increased from
- Davie, A. J. and D. L. Evans. 2000. Blood lactate responses to submaximal field exercise tests in Thoroughbred horses. Vet. J. 159:252-258. https://doi.org/10.1053/tvjl.1999.0420
- Buono, M. J., J. E. Yearger and J. A. Hodgdon. 1986. Plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol responses to brief highintensity exercise in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 61:1337-1339. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19188.8.131.527
- Farrell, P. A., T. L. Garthwaite and A. B. Gustafson. 1983. Plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol responses to submaximal and exhaustive exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 55:1441-1444. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19184.108.40.2061
- Harkins, J. D., R. E. Beadle and S. G. Kamerling. 1993. The correlation of running ability and physiological variables in Thoroughbred racehorses. Equine Vet. J. 25:53-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1993.tb02902.x
- Erik, A. R., W. Derave and J. F. P. Wojtaszewski. 2001. Topical Review; Glucose, exercise and insulin: emerging concepts. J. Physiol. 535:313-322. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.t01-2-00313.x
- Evans, D. L., R. C. Harris and D. H. Snow. 1993. Correlation of racing performance with blood lactate and heart rate after exercise in Thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet. J. 25:441-445. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1993.tb02987.x
- Devlin, J., J. Barlow and E. Horton. 1989. Whole body and regional fuel metabolism during early post exercise recovery. Am. J. Physiol. 256:E167-E172.
- Engelhardt, W., H. Hornicke, J. H. Ehrlein and E. Schmidt. 1973. Lactat, pyruvat, glucose und wasserstoffionen im venosen blut bei reitpferden in unterschiedlichem trainingszustand. Zentbl. Vet. Med. (A) 20:173-187.
- Harris, R. C., D. J. Marlin and D. H. Snow. 1987. Metabolic response to maximal exercise of 800 and 2,000 m in the thoroughbred horse. J. Appl. Physiol. 63:12-19. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19220.127.116.11
- Karen, L. S., P. M. John and J. B. Eldon. 2006. Inhibition of lipolysis does not affect insulin sensitivity to glucose uptake in the mourning dove. Comparative Biochemistry and physiology, Part B 144:387-394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2006.04.009
- Inoue, Y., T. Osawa, A. Matsui, Y. Asai, Y. Murakami, T. Matsui and H. Yano. 2002. Changes of serum mineral concentrations in horses during exercise. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(4):531-536. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.531
- Ju, J. C., Y. K. Fan and J. C. Hsu. 2002. The effects of endurance training on the hemogram of the horse. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15(9):1348-1353. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.1348
- Hinchcliff, K. W., M. A. Lauderdale, J. Dutson, R. J. Geor and V. A. Lancombe. 2002. High intensity exercise conditioning increases accumulated oxygen deficit of horses. Equine Vet. J. 34:6-7. https://doi.org/10.2746/042516402776181187
- Irvine, C. H. G. 1983. The role of hormones in exercise physiology. In 'Equine Exercise Physiology' (Ed. D. H. Snow, S. G. B. Persson, R. J. Rose). Granta Editions, Cambridge, pp. 377-388.
- Medbo, J. I. 1993. Glycogen breakdown and lactate accumulation during high-intensity cycling. Acta. Physiol. Scand. 149:85-89. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1993.tb09595.x
- Nogushige, I., S. Fumio, K. Masahiko and H. Telhisa. 1999. Changes in Serum Concentration of Uric Acid and Allantoin due to Exhaustive Treadmill Exericse. J. Euqine Sci. 10:45-48. https://doi.org/10.1294/jes.10.45
- Masahiko, K., N. Shun-ichi, T. Fujie, M. Kyousuke, H. Atsushi, K. Makoto and T. Kawuyoshi. 1998. Plasma Catecholamine, Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol Response to Exhaustive Incremental Treadmill Exercise of the Thoroughbred Horse. J. Equine Sci. 9:9-18. https://doi.org/10.1294/jes.9.9
- Maxwell, N. S. and M. A. Nimmo. 1996. Anaerobic capacity: a maximal anaerobic running test versus the maximal accumulated oxygen dificit. Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 21:35-47. https://doi.org/10.1139/h96-004
- Marion, G. A. 1975. The effect of Exercise on Blood Metabolite Levels in the Horse. Equine Vet. J. 7:27-33. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1975.tb03225.x
- Mark, H. 2000. Skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise in humans. Clinic. Experim. Pharmacol. Physiol. 27:225-228. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1681.2000.03225.x
- Lacombe, V., K. W. Hinchliff, R. J. Geor and M. A. Lauderdale. 1999. Exercise that induces substantial muscle glycogen depletion impairs subsequent anaerobic capacity. Equine Vet. J. Sppl. 30:293-297.
- Lindholm, A. and B. Saltin. 1974. The physiological and biochemical response of Standardbred horses to exercise of varying speed and duration. Acta. Vet. Scand. 15:1-15.
- Marc, M., N. Parvizi, F. Ellendorff, E. Kallweit and F. Elsaesser. 2000. Plasma cortisol and ACTH concentration in the warmblood horse in response to a standardized treadmill exercise test as physiological markers for evaluation of training status. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1936-1946. https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.7871936x
- Krzywanek, H. 1973. Untersuchungen zur beurteilung det aktuellen leistungsfahigkeit von trabrennpferden. Zentbl. Vet. Med. (A) 20:265-276.
- Kjaer, M., P. Farrell, N. Christensen and H. Galbo. 1986. Increased epinephirne resoponse and inaccurate glucoregulation in exercisign athletes. J. Appl. Physiol. 61:1693-1700. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1918.104.22.1683
- Keenan, D. M. 1978. Changes in plasma uric acid levels in horses after galloping. Res. Vet. Sci. 25:127-128.
- Kjaer, M., C. Hollenbeck, B. Frey-Hewitt, H. Galbo, W. Haskell and G. Reaven. 1990. Glucoregulation and hormonal responses to maximal exercise in non-insulin-dependent diabetes. J. Appl. Physiol. 68:2067-2074. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1922.214.171.1247
- Volkov, N. I., E. A. Shirkovets and V. E. Borilkevich. 1975. Assessment of aerobic and anaerobic capacity of athletes in treadmill running tests. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. 34:121-130. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00999924
- Scott, C. B., F. B. Roby, T. G. Lohman and J. C. Bunt. 1991. The maximally accumulated oxygen deficit as an indicator of anaerobic capacity. Med. Sci. Sprots Exerc. 23:618-624.
- Snow, D. H., R. C. Harris and S. Gash. 1985. Metabolic response of equine muscle to intermittent maximal exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 58:1689-1697. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.336065
- Streter, F. A. 1959. The effect of systemic training on plasma electrocytes, haematocrit value and blood sugar in Thoroughbred race horses. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37:273-283. https://doi.org/10.1139/o59-028
- Saibene, F., G. Cortili, P. Gavazzi, A. Sala, M. Faina and F. Sardella. 1985. Maximal anaerobic (lactic) capacity and power of the horse. Equine Vet. J. 17:130-132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1985.tb02066.x
- Sahlin, K., M. Tonkonogi and K. Soderlund. 1998. Energy supply and muscle fatigue in humans. Acta. Physiol. Scand. 162:261-266. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-201X.1998.0298f.x
- Roneus, N., B. Essen-Gustavsson and A. Lindholm. 1994. Plasma lactate response to submaximal and maximal exercise tests with training, and its relationship to performance and muscle characteristic in standardbred trotters. Equine Vet. J. 26:117-121. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1994.tb04348.x
- Roneus, N., B. Essen-Gustavsson, A. Lindholm and S. Persson. 1999. Muscle characteristics and plasma lactate and ammonia response after racing in Standardbred trotters: relation to performance. Equine Vet. J. 31:170-173. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1999.tb03811.x
- Rose, R. J., D. K. Hendrickson and P. K. Knight. 1990. Clinical exercise testing in the normal Thoroughbred racehorses. Aust. Vet. J. 67:345-348. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1990.tb07394.x
- Nummela, A. and H. Rusko. 1995. Time course of anaerobic and aerobic energy expenditure during short-term exhaustive running in athletes. Intl. J. Sports Med. 16:522-527. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-973048
- Rasanen, L. A., P. A. Wiitanen, E. M. Lilius, S. Hyyppa and A. R. Poso. 1996. Accumulation of uric acid in plasma after repeated bouts of exercise in the horse. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 114:139-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(96)00022-3
- Poso, A. R., J. L. Kimmo and L. A. Rasanen. 1995. Distribution of lactate between red blood cells and plasma after exercise. Equine Vet. J. Sppl. 18:231-234.
- Kraemer, W. J., J. F. Patton, H. G. Knuttgen, L. J. Marchitelli, C. Cruthirds, A. Damokosh, E. Harman, P. Frykman and J. E. Dziados. 1989. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to short-duration high-intensity cycle exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 66:161-167. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.343897
- Effect of racing on blood variables in Standardbred horses pp.02756382, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12666