Morphological Discretion of Basidiospores of the Puftball Mushroom Calostoma by Electron and Atomic Force Microscopy

  • Kim, Mi-Sun (School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Ki-Woo (National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management, Seoul National University) ;
  • Jung, Hack-Sung (School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University)
  • Published : 2007.10.30

Abstract

Comparative morphology among species of the genus Calostoma, including C. cinnabarina, C. ravenelii, and C. japonicum, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Spore morphology of C. cinnabarina and C. ravenelii showed no dramatic differences by light microcopy and scanning electron microscopy. To differentiate these species, atomic force microscopy was employed. Quantitative analysis of the surface roughness of basidiospores revealed subtle differences in height fluctuation at the nanometer scale between the species of Calostoma. Basidiospores of C. cinnabarina had a relatively rougher surface than those of C. ravenelii at $2.0{\times}2.0\;{\mu}m^2$ scan areas.

References

  1. Auerbach, I. D., C. Sorensen, H. G. Hansma, and P. A. Holden. 2000. Physical morphology and surface properties of unsaturated Pseudomonas putida biofilms. J. Bacteriol. 182: 3809-3815 https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.182.13.3809-3815.2000
  2. Beech, I. B., J. R. Smith, A. A. Steele, I. Penegar, and S. A. Campbell. 2002. The use of atomic force microscopy for studying interactions of bacterial biofilms with surfaces. Coll. Surf. B Biointerfaces 23: 231-247 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7765(01)00233-8
  3. Bruns, T. D., T. M. Szaro, M. Gardes, K. W. Cullings, J. J. Pan, D. L. Taylor, R. T. Horton, A. Kretzer, M. Garbelotto, and Y. Li. 1998. A sequence database for the identification of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes by phylogenetic analysis. Mol. Ecol. 7: 257-272 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294X.1998.00337.x
  4. Bruns, T. D., R. Fogel, T. J. White, and J. D. Palmer. 1989. Accelerated evolution of a false-truffle from a mushroom ancestor. Nature 339: 140-142 https://doi.org/10.1038/339140a0
  5. Castro-Mendoza, E. Jr., O. K. Miller, and D. A. Stetler. 1983. Basidiospore wall ultrastructure and tissue system morphology in the genus Calostoma in North America. Mycologia 75: 36-45 https://doi.org/10.2307/3792921
  6. Dufrene, Y. F. 2004. Using nanotechniques to explore microbial surfaces. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2: 451-460 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro905
  7. Feninat, F. E., I. S. Elouatik, T. H. Ellis, E. Sacher, and I. Stangel. 2001. Quantitative assessment of surface roughness as measured by AFM: Application to polished human dentin. Appl. Surf. Sci. 183: 205-215 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-4332(01)00558-X
  8. Hawksworth, D. L., P. M. Kirk, B. C. Sutton, and D. M. Pegler. 1995. Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi. 8th Ed. International Mycological Institute, Egham, United Kingdom
  9. Hibbett, D. S., M. P. Elizabeth, E. Langer, G. Langer, and M. J. Donoghue. 1997. Evolution of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 12002-12006
  10. Hughey, B. D., G. C. Adams, T. D. Bruns, and D. S. Hibbett. 2000. Phylogeny of Calostoma, the gelatinous-stalked puffball, based on nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia 92: 94-104 https://doi.org/10.2307/3761453
  11. Ing, B. 1989. First steps. Puffballs. Mycologist 3: 126-127 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-915X(89)80048-5
  12. Ingold, C. T. 1971. Fungal Spores: Their Liberation and Dispersal. Clarendon Press, Oxford
  13. Kim, K. W. 2006. Atomic force microscopy for direct imaging and nanoscale morphometry of the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens. J. Phytopathol. 154: 751-754 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0434.2006.01175.x
  14. Kuznetsov, Y. G., S. B. Larson, J. Day, A. Greenwood, and A. McPherson. 2001. Structural transitions of satellite tobacco mosaic virus particles. Virology 284: 223-234 https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.2000.0914
  15. Lim, J. S., J. M. Kim, J. C. Kim, C. H. Kim, D. R. Yang, H. I. Chang, and S. W. Kim. 2005. Relationship between fractal dimension and morphological features of Cephalosporium acremonium M25 in a 30-l bioreactor culture. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 15: 971-976
  16. Manfred, B. and A. Fresinsky. 2002. Derivation of a polymorphic lineage of Gasteromycetes from boletoid ancestors. Mycologia 94: 85-98 https://doi.org/10.2307/3761848
  17. Miller, O. K. and H. Miller. 1988. Gasteromycetes: Morphological and Developmental Features. Mad River Press, Eureka, California
  18. Na, B. K., B. I. Sang, D. W. Park, and D. H. Park. 2005. Influence of electric potential on structure and function of biofilm in wastewater treatment reactor: Bacterial oxidation of organic carbons coupled to bacterial denitrification. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 15: 1221-1228
  19. Nam, Y. S. and J. W. Choi. 2006. Fabrication and electrical characteristics of ferredoxin self-assembled layer for biomolecular electronic device application. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 16: 15-19
  20. Otani, Y. 1976. On the genus Calostoma in Japan. Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan 17: 358-362
  21. Pegler, D. N., T. Laessoe, and B. M. Spooner. 1995. British Puffballs, Earthstars and Stinkhorns. Royal Botanic Garden, Kew
  22. Ro, H. S., H. K. Park, M. G. Kim, and B. H. Chung. 2005. In vitro formation of protein nanoparticle using recombinant human ferritin H and L chains produced from E. coli. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 15: 254-258
  23. Zeller, S. M. 1948. Notes on certain Gasteromycetes including two new orders. Mycologia 40: 639-668 https://doi.org/10.2307/3755316
  24. Zeller, S. M. 1949. Keys to the orders, families and genera of the Gasteromycetes. Mycologia 41: 36-58 https://doi.org/10.2307/3755271