Late Tremadocian Radiolarian Faunas and Biostratigraphy of the Cow Head Group, Western Newfoundland, Canada

뉴파운드랜드 Cow Head Group에서 발견한 후기 Tremadocian 방산충 군집과 생층서대 재정립에 관한 연구

  • Published : 2007.08.31


Late Tremadocian radiolarian faunas were first recovered from the Cow Head Group, Newfoundland, Canada. Three faunal assemblages were recognized, one from Martin Point and two from Western Brook Pond in Gros Morne National Park. These radiolarian faunas include six families, 11 genera, and 26 species. In these faunas, six genera (Archeoproventocitum, Cowheadia, Neopalaeospiculum, Protospongentactinia, Protoproventocitum and Westernbrookia) and 17 species (Archeoproventocitum nudiformum, A. retiformum, Aspiculum densum, A. jamesi, A. multistratum, A. gigantium, Cowheadia duplextesta, Neopalaeospiculum densum, N. laxum, N. transformum, Pararcheoentactinia stilla, Protospongentactinia spongiosa, Protoproventocium nazarovii, P. aitchisoni, Westernbrookia cancella, W. diversa, and W. ovata) are new. Late Tremadocian faunas are characterized by the appearance of proventocitiids and diversification of aspiculumids and reduction of protoentactiniids and echidniniids that had flourished in the early Tremadocian faunas. An examination of the biostratigraphic range of co-occurring conodonts indicates that the radiolarian faunas described here belong to the late Tremadocian, from the Lower Diversity Interval through the M. dianae Zone to the lower P. proteus Zone. With the recovery of conodonts of the R. manitouensis Zone from other localities in the study area, the correlation among Martin Point, Western Brook Pond, Broom Point, and St. Paul's Inlet strata has became more precise. Also, the middle and late Tremadocian Cow Head Group can be subdivided into the R. manitouensis Zone, the Low Diversity Interval, and the M. dianae Zone of North America. The lower P. proteus Zone of the latest Tremadocian for northern Europe is recognized in the Western Brook Pond South section.


Radiolaria;Conodont;biostratigraphy;Late Tremadocian;Cow Head Group


  1. Ehrenberg, C.G, 1838, Uber der Bildung der Kreidefelsen und des Kreidemergels durch unsichtbare Organismen. Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Jahrgang 1838, 59-147
  2. Ethington, R.L. and Clark, D.L, 1964, Conodonts from the El Paso Formation (Ordovician) of Texas and Arizona. Journal of Paleontology, 38, 685-704
  3. Johns, P.J., 1971, Lower Ordovician conodonts from the Bonaparte Gulf Basin and the Daly River Basin, north-western Australia: Australia Bureau of Mineral Resources, Bulletin, 117, 1-80
  4. Kozur, H.W. and Repetski, J.E., 2002, Paulanoblella, nomen novum (Radiolaria) replaces Noblella Kozur, Mostler and Repetski, 1996, a homonym of Noblella Barbour, 1930 (Amphibia). Journal of Micropalaeontology, 21 (1), 28
  5. Lindstrom, M., 1971, Lower Ordovician conodonts of Europe. In W. C. Sweet and S. M. Bergsstrom (eds.), Symposiurn on Conodont Biostratigraphy. Geological Society of America Memoir, 127, p. 21-61
  6. Nazarov, B.B., 1988, Radiolyarri Paleozoya. Prakiticheskoe Rukovodstvo po Mikrofaune SSSR, Nedra Press, Leningrad, 2, 1-232. (In Russian)
  7. Nazarov, B.B. and Ormiston, A.R., 1993, New biostratigraphically important Paleozoic Radiolaria of Eurasia and North America. In I. Blueford and B. Murchey (eds.), Radiolaria of Giant and Subgiant Fields in Asia. Micropaleontology, Special Publication, Number 6, p. 22-60
  8. Nazarov, B.B. and Popov, L.E., 1980, Stratigrafiya i fauna kremnisto-karbonatnykh tolshch ordovika kazakhstana; radiolarii i bezzamkovye brakhiopody [Stratigraphy and fauna of the siliceous-carbonate sequence of the Ordovician of Kazakstan (radiolarians and inarticulate brachiopods)]. Trudy Geologicheskiy Institut Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 331, 190 p. (In Russian)
  9. Pyle, L.J., Barnes, C.R. and Ji, Z., 2003, Conodont fauna and biostratigraphy of the Outram, Skoki, and Owen Creek Formations (Lower to Middle Ordovician), Wilcox Pass, Alberta, Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 77 (5), 958-976<0958:CFABOT>2.0.CO;2
  10. Repetski, J.E., 1982, Conodonts from El Paso Group (Lower Ordocvician) of westernmost Texas and southern New Mexico. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Memoir 40, 1-120
  11. Ross, R.J.J., Hintze, L.E., Ethington, R.L., Miller, J.F., Taylor, M.E. and Repetski, J.E., 1997, The Ibexian, lowermost series in the North American Ordovician. In M.E. Taylor (ed.), Early Paleozoic Biochronology of the Great Basin. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 1579, p. 1-50
  12. Williams, S.H., Barnes, C.R., O'brien, F.H.C and Boyce, W.D., 1994, A proposed global stratotype for the second series of the Ordovician System; Cow Head Peninsula, western Newfoundland. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 42, 219-231
  13. Ehrenberg, C.G, 1875, Fortsetzung der mikrogeologischen Studien als Gesammt-Uebersicht der mikroskopischen Paliilontolgie gleichartig analysirter Gebirgsarten der Erde, mit specieller Rucksicht auf den PolycystinenMergel von Barbados. Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Akademie des Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Jahrgang, 1875, 1-226
  14. Johnston, D.I. and Bames, C.R., 1999, Early and Middle Ordovician (Arenig) conodonts from St. Paul's Inlet and Martin Point, Cow Head Group, western Newfoundland, Canada. Geologica et Palaeontologica, 33, 21-70
  15. Danelian, T. and Popov, L., 2003, Ordovician radiolarian biodiversity; Insights based on new and revised data from Kazakhstan. Societe geologique de France, Bulletin, 174 (4), 325-335
  16. Ji, Z. and Bames, C.R., 1994, Lower Ordovician conodonts of the St. George Group, Port au Port Peninsula, western Newfoundland, Canada. Palaeontographica Canadiana, 11, 1-149
  17. Won, M.-Z., 1997, The proposed new radiolarian subfamily Retentactiniinae (Entactiniidae) from the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Gogo Formation, Australia Micropaleontolgy, 43 (4), 371-418
  18. Aitchison, J.C., Flood, P.G., and Malpas, J., 1998, Lowermost Ordovician (basal Tremadoc) radiolarians from the Little Port Complex, western Newfoundland. Geological Magazine, 135 (3), 413-419
  19. Pander, C.H., 1856, Monographie der fossilen Fische des Silurischen Systems der Russisch-Baltishen Gouvernements. Koniglische Akademie der Wissenschaften, St. Petersburg, 91 p
  20. James, N.P. and Stevens, R.K., 1986, Stratigraphy and correlation of the Cambro-Ordovician Cow Head Group, western Newfoundland. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 366, 143 p
  21. Lofgren, A., Repetski, J.E., and Ethington, R.L., 1999, Some trans-Iapetus conodont faunal connections in the Tremadocian. Bolletino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana 37, 159-173
  22. Pyle, L.J. and Barnes, C.R., 2002, Taxonomy, evolution and biostratigraphy of conodonts from the Kechika Formation, Skoki Formation and Road River Group (Upper Cambrian to Lower Silurian), north-eastern British Columbia. National Research Council of Canada Monograph Series, 4461, 1-227
  23. Lindstrom, M., 1955, Conodonts from the lowermost Ordovician strata of south-central Sweden. Gelogiska Foreningen I Stockholm Forhandlingar, 76, 517-604
  24. Lofgren, A., 1994, Arenig (Lower Ordovician) conodonts and biozonation in the eastern Siljan district, central Sweden. Journal of Paleontology 68 (6), 1350-1368
  25. Won, M.-Z. and Below, R., 1999, Cambrian radiolarians from the Georgina Basin, Queensland, Australia. Micropaleontology, 45 (4), 325-363
  26. Aitchison, J.C., 1998, A Lower Ordovician (Arenig) radiolarian fauna from the Ballantrae Complex, Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology, 34 (1), 73-81
  27. Stouge, S. and Bagnoli, B., 1988, Early Ordovician conodonts from Cow Head peninsula, western Newfoundland. Palaeontographia Italica, 75, 89-179
  28. Bengtson, S., 1986, Siliceous microfossils from the Upper Cambrian of Queensland. Alcheringa, 10, 195-216
  29. Viira, V., Lofgren A., Magi, S. and Wickstrom, J., 2001, An Early to Middle Ordovician succession of conodont faunas at Maekalda, northern Estonia. Geological Magazine 138 (6), 699-718
  30. Apollonov, M.K., Zhemchuzhnikov, V.G., and Dubina, S.V., 1990, Ordovician of the northwestern Pribalkhash area. Izvestiya Akad. Nauk Kazakhskoy SSR, Ser. Geol., 4, 3-16 (in Russian)
  31. Bames, C.R., 1988, The proposed Cambrian-Ordovician global boundary stratotype and point (GSSP) in western Newfoundland, Canada. Geological Magazine, 125 (4), 381-414
  32. Lofgren, A., 1996, Lower Ordovician conodonts, reworking, and biostratigraphy of the Orreholmen quarry, Vastergotland, south-central Sweden. Geologiska Foreningens I Stockholm Forhandlingar 118, 169-183
  33. Van Wamel, W.A., 1974, Conodont biostratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician of north-western Oland, south-eastern Sweden. Utrecht Micropaleontology Bulletin 10, 1-126
  34. Kozur, H.W., Mostler, H., and Repetski, J.E., 1996, Wellpreserved Tremadocian primitive Radiolaria from the Windfall Formation of the Antelope Range, Eureka County, Nevada, USA, Geologisch-Palaeontologisch Mitteilungen Innsbruck, 21, 245-271
  35. Muller, K.J., 1964, Conodonten aus dem unteren Ordoviziurn von Sudkorea, Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaeontolgie Abhandlungen, 119, 93-102
  36. Pyle, L.J. and Barnes, C.R., 2003, Conodonts from a platform-to-basin transect, Lower Ordovician to Lower Silurian, northeastern British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 77 (1), 146-171<0146:CFAPTB>2.0.CO;2
  37. Bames, C.R. and Palowski, M.L.S., 1973, Lower and Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Mystic Formation, Quebec, Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 47, 760-790
  38. Maletz, J. and Bruton, D.L., 2005, The Beothuka terranova (Radiolaria) assemblage and its importance for the understanding of early Ordovician radiolarian evolution. Geological Magazine, 142 (6), 711-721
  39. Won, M.-Z., Blodgett, R.B. and Nestor, V., 2002, Llandoverian (Early Silurian) radiolarians from the Road River Formation of east-central Alaska and the new family Haplotaeniatumidae. Journal of Paleontology, 76 (6), 941-964<0941:LESRFT>2.0.CO;2
  40. Furnish, W.M., 1938, Conodonts from the Prairie du Chien (Lower Ordovician ) beds of the upper Mississippi Valley. Journal of Paleontology, 12, 318-340
  41. Johnston, D.I., 1986, Early Ordovician (Arenig) conodonts from St. Pauls Inlet and Martin Point, Cow Head Group, western Newfoundland. M. Sc. Thesis. Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland. 266 p
  42. Lofgren, A., 2000, Early to early Middle Ordovician conodont biostratigraphy of the Gillberga quarry, northern Oland, Sweden. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar 122, 321-338
  43. Ethington, R.L. and Clark, D.L., 1982, Lower and Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Ibex area, western Millard County, Utah. Brigham Young University Geology Studies, 28, 1-60
  44. Won, M.-Z. and lams, W.J., 2005, Early to middle Tremadocian radiolarian faunas of the Cow Head Group, western Newfoundland. Journal of Paleontology, 79 (3), 433-459<0433:EOETMT>2.0.CO;2
  45. Fahraeus, L.E. and Nowlan, G.S., 1978, Franconian (Late Cambrian) to early Champlainian (Middle Ordovician) conodonts from the Cow Head Group, western Newfoundland. Journal of Paleontology, 52, 444-471
  46. Won, M.-Z. and lams, W.J., 2002, Late Cambrian radiolarian faunas and biostratigraphy of the Cow Head Group, western Newfoundland. Journal of Paleontology, 76 (1), 1-33
  47. Lofgren, A., 1993, Arenig conodont successions from central Sweden. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar, 115, 193-207
  48. Aitchison, J.C., 1993, Devonian (Frasnian) radiolarians from the Gogo Formation, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Palaeontographica, Abteilung, A, 228 (4-6), 105-135
  49. Fortey, R.A. and Holdsworth, B.K., 1972, The oldest known well-preserved Radiolaria. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologia Italiana, 10 (1), 35-41
  50. Holdsworth, B.K., 1977, Paleozoic Radiolaria; Stratigraphic distribution in Atlantic borderlands. In F.M. Swain (ed.), Stratigraphic Micropaleontology of Atlantic Basin and Borderlands: Elsevier, Developments in Paleontology and Stratigraphy, 6, p. 167-184
  51. Lofgren, A., 1997, Conodont faunas from the upper Tremadoc at Brattefors, south-central Sweden, and reconstruction of the Paltodus apparatus. Geologiska Foreningens I Stockholm Forhandlingar 119, 257-266

Cited by

  1. Earliest Arenig radiolarians from the Cow Head Group, Western Newfoundland vol.85, pp.01, 2011,
  2. An illustrated catalogue and revised classification of paleozoic radiolarian genera vol.39, pp.3, 2017,
  3. Taxonomy of Paleozoic radiolarian genera vol.39, pp.3, 2017,
  4. Inventory of Paleozoic radiolarian species (1880–2016) vol.39, pp.3, 2017,
  5. Chapter 25 Palaeogeographical distribution of Ordovician Radiolarian occurrences: patterns, significance and limitations vol.38, pp.1, 2013,