방사선 조사선량에 따른 생쥐 난소의 형태학적 변화

Morphological Changes of Mouse Ovary by X-Ray Irradiation

  • 윤철호 (동남보건대학 방사선과) ;
  • 최종운 (대전보건대학 방사선과) ;
  • 윤석환 (동남보건대학 방사선과)
  • Yoon, Chul-Ho (Department of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College) ;
  • Choi, Jong-Woon (Department of Radiologic Technology, Daejeon Health Science College) ;
  • Yoon, Surk-Hwan (Department of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College)
  • 발행 : 2007.12.30

초록

본 연구는 방사선 조사선량에 따른 난소조직의 형태학적 변화과정을 규명하고자 하였다. X-선을 생쥐에 전신조사한 후, BrdU, TUNEL, p53, p21, PCNA, $inhibin-{\alpha}$ 등을 면역조직화학반응을 통하여 확인하였으며, 난포의 미세구조적 변화를 고배율의 전자현미경을 이용하여 관찰하였다. X-선을 조사한 난소조직은 방사선량이 증가함에 따라 성장 난포의 형태적 변화가 뚜렷하였으며, 특히 과립층세포의 변성에 의한 핵은 응축과 투명대의 변화가 현저하였다. 또한 Masson's trichrome 염색과 세망섬유 염색을 통한 조직화학반응의 결과 과립층세포의 변화와 난포기저막의 변형, 그리고 세망섬유의 비정상적 배열이 확인되었다. BrdU 반응결과, 방사선 조사량이 증가함에 따라 양성반응을 보이던 정상난포의 과립층세포가 급격히 감소하였으며, 세포예정사(apoptosis)를 확인하기 위한 TUNEL 반응에서는 정상난소의 퇴화난포에서만 양정반응을 보이던 과립층세포들이, 방사선량의 증가에 따라 성장난포 및 원시난포 등으로 확대되었으며, X-선 600 cGy 조사량에서는 난모세포의 세포예정사도 확인되었다. 세포주기 조절단백질인 p53 단백질의 난소 내 발현을 면역조직화학반응으로 관찰한 결과, 방사선량의 증가에 따라 p53의 발현도 증가하였으며, X-선 600 cGy 조사된 실험군에서는 난포막세포를 포함한 난포의 거의 모든 세포에서 광범위한 발현이 확인되었다. 또한 유사분열 억제단백질인 p21 단백질의 발현은 난포의 과립층세포에서 현저하였으며, 조사량이 증가함에 따라 난포강 주위에서 강한 양성반응이 관찰되었다. 생식세포의 증식을 확인하기 위한 PCNA 반응에서는 정상 대조군의 성장난포와 성숙난포 및 원시난포 등에서 모두 강한 양성반응을 보였으나, 방사선량이 증가함에 따라 반응도가 현저히 감소되었다. 특히 난모세포 주위의 과립층세포가 난포막에 인접한 세포에 비해 반응도의 차이가 심한 점으로 미루어, 난모세포와 난포동에 인접한 세포들이 방사선 조사에 의해 가장 먼저 손상을 받는 것이 확인되었다. 난포의 $inhibin-{\alpha}$ 단백질의 발현은 난포의 성장시기에 따라 차이를 보여, 난포동이 형성된 성숙난포에서 강한 양성반응을 보였다. 난포막 주변의 과립층세포에서 강한 양성반응이 관찰되었으나, 난포막을 구성하는 난막세포에서는 전혀 발현되지 않았다. 방사선 조사에 의해 $inhibin-{\alpha}$의 발현은 정상 대조군에 비해 현저히 감소하였으나, X-선 600 cGy의 선량에서는 약간 증가하는 양상을 보였는데, 이는 과립층세포의 세포사에 따른 현상인 것으로 추정되었다. 방사선 조사에 따른 난소조직의 미세구조 변화를 관찰하기 위하여 고배율의 전자현미경으로 관찰한 결과, 방사선량의 증가에 따라 성장난포의 과립층세포에서 핵과 세포질의 미세구조 변형이 급격히 증가하였으며, 난포동에서는 세포사의 부산물인 세포 잔유체들과 백혈구 및 대식세포 등이 관찰되었다. 과립층세포의 미세구조적 변형은 주로 핵의 응축에 의한 전자밀도의 증가와 핵의 분절화, 그리고 세포질의 위축 등, 전형적인 세포예정사의 특성을 나타내고 있었다. 세포의 괴사도 일부 확인되었으나 그다지 현저하지 않았으며, apoptotic body와 함께 대식세포가 산재되어 있었다. 방사선(X-선) 조사 및 선량증가에 따라 정상 난소조직의 난포액의 불균질 물질의 생성, 난포의 기저막의 염색성출현, 세포예정사 발생, 대식세포들의 변화 등을 확인하였다. 이 결과를 통하여 여성 자궁암을 방사선치료 시 방사선조사범위내에 포함되는 정상 난소조직에 초래 될 수 있는 방사선 생물학적 장해를 이해할 수 있다 하겠다.

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